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Mandala Visualization=曼荼羅觀想
著者 立川武蔵 (著)=Tachikawa, Musashi (au.) ; 曹德啟 (譯)=Tsao, Te-chi (tr.)
掲載誌 輔仁宗教研究=Fujen Religious Studies
巻号n.7
出版年月日2003.06
ページ1 - 44
出版者輔仁大學法學院宗教學系
出版サイト http://www.rsd.fju.edu.tw/
出版地臺北縣, 臺灣 [Taipei hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノートThe author is the professor of National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan. 翻譯者為中央研究院史語所研究助理
キーワード藏傳佛教=西藏佛教=Tibetan Buddhism; 觀想=Visualization; 修行方法=修行法門=Practice; 曼荼羅=Mandala; 曼陀羅=壇城=Mandala; 附身=possession; 身心=psycho-physiological; 瑜珈=yoga; 密宗=密教=坦特羅佛教=真言教=金剛乘=Esoteric Buddhism=Tantric Buddhism=Vajrayana Buddhism
抄録曼荼羅觀想裡所發現的身心改變,廣泛地被使用在密教儀禮和實踐之中。密教徒經常使用曼荼羅以給予門徒入門儀式(灌頂abhiseka)。 平信徒則對曼荼羅或描繪於其中的諸尊進行供養(puja)。有時候,當密教徒或瑜伽士進行觀想本尊(成就法sadhana)的修行時,曼荼羅被用來當作一種冥想的工具。於此情況下,冥想或觀想曼荼羅便具有救贖論的目的:觀想的修行者,即成就者(sadhka),試圖藉由此種宗教實踐獲得問悟。
曼荼羅觀想的密教實踐,基本上是要透過某種特殊瑜伽的力量來實行。當修行者或密教徒實踐觀想法,他便增強了他的精神能量。透過被增強和敏銳化的精神能量,修行者能夠達致現觀本尊於其面前,並且本尊栩栩如生。曼荼羅觀想並非一蹴可幾:它是吾人應該在某個期間內,依循一系列嚴格步驟而遂行的宗教實踐。通常,曼荼羅觀想的完成需時數年。眾所周知,瑜伽士至少在幾年間會經歷幾次身心的改變,直到他們到達古典瑜伽系統的某個階段。在一個相似的方式下,在不同的狀況裡會伴隨著各式各樣的身心改變,直到修行者達成曼荼羅觀想的修行。然而,可以在完成觀想本尊的修行者的意識和身體裡找到什麼樣的身心改變呢?我們應該謹記,所謂的身心改變,如果有的話,不可與獲得最終開悟的徵兆混淆在一起。如前述,曼荼羅觀想旨在獲得最終開悟的救世論的目的。但在這點上,我們毋寧說是較為關心稱作「曼荼羅觀想」的宗教實踐的初步階段,而非獲得最終靈性至福之人的身心狀態。
截至目前,曼苓羅最重要的功能之一便是提供觀想本尊的實踐的工具,吾人不應忽視這個問題,即何種狀態會發生在試圖現觀本尊的密教徒的身心之中。迄今,曼荼羅觀想過程的身心方面仍未被仔細研究如果我們能從身心的觀點成功地分析觀想過程,曼荼羅的功能也將會為清晰。

Psycho-physiological changes found in mandala visualization are used variously in Tantric rituals and practices. Tantrists often employ a mandala in order to give the initiation rite (abhiseka) to their disciples. Lay followers make worship services (puja) to a mandala or the deities depicted in the mandala. Sometimes mandalas are used as a kind of tool for meditation when Tantrists or yogins perform the practice of deity-visualization (sadhana). In such cases, the mandala meditation or visualization may have a soteriological purpose: the practitioners of visualization, i.e., sadhaka, try to obtain enlightenment through this kind of religious practice.
The Tantric practice of mandala visualization is to be basically carried out through the power of a particular kind of yoga. When a practitioner or Tantrist practices visualization, he intensifies his psychic energy. It is through the strengthened and sharpened psychic energy that the practitioner can succeed in visualizing the form of a deity in front of him as if the deity were real and alive. Mandala visualization is not done in a moment; it is a religious practice which one should perform, following a series of rigid steps over a certain span of time. Usually, the accomplishment of mandala visualization requires a number of years. It is well-known that yogins should undergo a number of psycho-physiological changes for, at least, several years, before they can reach a certain stage of the system of classical yoga. In a similar way, it has been said that various kinds of states accompanied by psycho-physiological changes must be observed until a practitioner succeeds in performing the visualization of a mandala. What kind of psycho-physiological changes, however, are found in the mind and body of the practitioner who has just succeeded in visualizing the form of a deity? One should remember that the so-called psycho-physiological changes, if any, are not to be confused with the symptom of obtaining final enlightenment. As mentioned before, mandala visualization may aim at the soteriological purpose of obtaining Final enlightenment. But, at this point, we are rather concerned with preliminary stages of religious practice called "mandala visualization," not with the state of the mind and body of the one who has obtained final spiritual beatitude.
Insofar as one of the most important functions of the mandala is to furnish a tool for the practice of visualizing deities, we should not neglect the question what kind of state occurs in the mind and body of the Tantrist trying to see the form of a deity in front of him. Hitherto the psycho-physiological aspect of the process of mandala visualization has not been well studied. The function of the mandala would be also clearer, if we could succeed in analyzing the process of visualization from the psycho-physiological viewpoint.
ISSN16820568 (P); 16820568 (E)
ヒット数550
作成日2004.02.20
更新日期2019.12.16



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