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日本曹洞宗與台灣佛教僧侶的互動=The Interaction Between Monks of Soto Zen in Japan and Buddhist Monks in Taiwan
著者 釋慧嚴 (著)=Shih, Huey-yen (au.)
掲載誌 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
巻号n.11
出版年月日1998.07
ページ119 - 153
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版サイト http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese; 英文=English
キーワード沈本圓師=Ven. Shen Ben-yuan; 江善慧師=Ven. Chiang Shan-hui; 林覺力師=Ven. Lin Jue-li; 台南開元寺=Tainan Kai-yuan Temple; 台灣佛教中學林=Taiwan Buddhist Middle School
抄録此論文是筆者於《中華佛學學報》第十期發表的〈西來庵事件前後台灣佛教的
動向〉之後,繼續以曹洞宗為中心,來探討它與台灣佛教僧侶的互動關係。在
此論文中筆者以台南開元寺傳芳師(包括本圓師在內)、基隆月眉山靈泉寺善
慧師、以及苗栗大湖法雲寺覺力師為主,來了解當時所謂台灣佛教三大派,與
日本佛教的互動關係。在此需要先申明的,是此論文在時代來說,是設定在明
治 28 年(1895)到昭和 10 年(1935)之間,理由是開元寺派早已在大正 6 年 4
月之後,轉歸屬臨濟宗,且覺力師於昭和 8 年(1933)6 月圓寂;還有善慧師
的人生舞台,也遠離台灣轉向福建、東南亞的緣故。
如拙文〈西來庵事件前後台灣佛教的動向〉所述,曹洞宗僧侶來台布教的初
期,與台灣佛教寺院締結了本末的關係,因此能有效地使用當地的佛教資源。
之後,雖因政府政策的調整,曹洞宗與台灣寺廟的本末關係產生了變化,但卻
也促使曹洞宗僧侶在台開始覓地建寺,開拓自己的資源。雖是如此,在整個大
環境中,曹洞宗在台的勢力,仍然是凌駕於其他宗派,加上本土的佛教僧侶受
戒的道場,如佐佐木珍龍《從軍實歷夢遊談》所調查的,有「福建省的鼓山涌
泉寺、怡山長慶寺,其他有天童山、天台山、補陀山」(頁 92)。其中,以赴
鼓山涌泉寺者占大多數,而鼓山涌泉寺是為中國曹洞宗的道場。或許是屬同一
法脈,同時也因日本曹洞宗來台,較他宗取得天時之便,曹洞宗與台灣佛教僧
侶或齋友的互動,對日後台灣佛教的發展有何影響,是值得吾人研究探討的課
題。

This article follows up my earlier article, “ The Hsi-lai-an Incident and the
Development of Taiwanese Buddhism with Special Reference to the Soto School,”
published in the tenth issue of the Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal. It continues to
center on Soto Zen and discusses the monks of this school and their interaction with
Buddhist monks in Taiwan. I focus my discussion on leading figures of the Soto
Zen movement in Taiwan such as Master Chuan-fang of the Kai-yuan Temple in
Tainan(including Master Ben-yuan), Master Shan-hui of the Ling quan Temple on
Mt. Yue-mei, Keelung, and Master Jue-li of the Fa-yun Temple in Ta-hu, Miao-li. I
evaluate the interactive relationship between the so-called “Three Major Schools of
Taiwanese Buddhism” and the Japanese Soto School. I want to point out that I
have chosen to cover the time span of forty years beginning from 1895, the twentyeighth
year of the Meiji Period, to 1935, the tenth year of the Showa period, because
three major events occurred in this period which negatively affected Soto Zen
expansion in Taiwan: 1) as early as April 1917, the sixth year of the Taisho period,
the Kai-yuan School left the Japanese Soto School and joined the Japanese Lin-ji
School, 2) Master Jue-li died in 1933, the eighth year of the Showa period, and 3)
Master Shan-hui moved from Taiwan to Fujian.
As I mentioned in“the Hsi-lai-an Incident and the Development of Taiwanese
Buddhism with Special Reference to the Soto School,” monks of the Soto School, at
the initial period of spreading their teachings in Taiwan, established a root-and-branch
relationship with numerous Taiwanese Buddhist monasteries. This
relationship allowed them to make use of Buddhist resources there, to develop and
expand their own resources, and to construct new temples. The Soto School
expanded more quickly in Taiwan than other Japanese Buddhist schools because it
was the first Japanese sect to arrive in Taiwan and also its roots were in mainland
China, which allowed it to be more easily received by the Taiwanese. Even several
leading Taiwanese Soto monks received their ordinations in Chinese Cao-dong(Soto
Sect)monasteries, which included the Yong-guan Temple of Gu Mountain in Fujian
Province, where the majority of the Taiwanese Soto monks received their ordinations,
the Chang-ging Temple of Yi Mountain, Tian-tong Mountain, Tian-tai Mountain, and
pu-tuo Mountain, all off them are noted in Sasaki Chinryu's Ch'ung-chun shih-li
meng-yu t'an(p. 92).
Due to its advantages of an earlier establishment in Taiwan and its Chinese origins,
the Japanese Soto School developed a significant relationship with Taiwanese
monasteries. The substantial interaction between Soto Zen monks and Taiwanese
monks along with their patrons and its influence on the development of Buddhism in
Taiwan are of great significance and merit close examination in this article
ISSN10177132 (P)
ヒット数842
作成日
更新日期2017.06.16



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