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That this Realm may Become like a Pure Buddha Land--Social and Cultural Aspects of Tsun-shih's Pure Land Liturgics=現世可成清淨佛土--慈雲《往生淨土懺儀》的社會和文化層面
著者 Stevenson, Daniel B. (著)=史蒂文生 (au.)
掲載誌 中華國際佛學會議實錄(第3屆):人間淨土與現代社會: = The Record of Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism(3rd): The "Earthly" Pure Land and Contemporary Society
出版年月日1998.02
ページ164 - 165
出版者法鼓文化出版社=Dharma Drum Culture
出版サイト http://www.ddc.com.tw
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料の種類會議論文=Proceeding Article
言語英文=English
ノート中英文提要; 中文論文提要:頁94.
中英文提要; 英文論文提要:pp.164-165.
キーワードPure Land Buddhism; Sukhavati; This-world; Pure Land Liturgies; Other-worldly; Stevenson, Daniel B.; 史蒂文生; 淨土佛教; 極樂世界; 現世; 淨土崇拜; 他世
抄録Tz'u-yun Tsun-shih(964-1032) is remembered not only as a leading reviver of T'ien-t'ai Buddhism in the Northern Sung but also as a seminal influence on Pure Land Buddhism in the Sung and post-Sung period. His biography is included regularly in Pure Land-related hagiographical compendia, a feature which has established him as a luminary in the mind of Chinese Pure Land historiographers. Four of his tracts on Pure Land practice-most of them dealing with Pure Land ritual-are likewise cited and emulated frequently by later Pure Land authors, usually as an authoritative model for orthodox Pure Land practice. The aims of this paper are twofold:One is to examine Tsun-shih's Pure Land writings for the defining contours of his Pure Land thought and practice,as well as any points of noticeable tension or concern; second,to consider the ramifications of his teachings vis a vis the historical circumstances within which Tsun-shih himself functioned and within which his works were later invoked.

Contrary to the commonplace view that Pure Land salvation is "other-worldly" in its orientation,or focused wholly on rebirth in Sukhavati,Tsun-shih's soteriology is laden with profound ramifications for the society and culture of "this world" as well. Such concerns are evident in both the norms that he defines as instrumental to successful rebirth (many of which are overtly social) and the array of "this-worldly benefits" that redound to the Pure Land devotee and his or her community. One could say that Tsun-shih's guidelines for Pure Land practice embed within themselves the very qualities that they seek to actualize in Sukhavati:The "purity" of the Pure Land is localized concretely in the "pure deeds" (ching-yeh) that defines membership among the elect destined for rebirth. Such a "bringing of the Pure Land to earth" laces Pure Land practice and ideology squarely within the purview of human society and history,raising very real questions about how discussions of Pure Land theology and piety-including the axiom that "Amitabha is the original nature,and the Pure Land is mind only-responded reflexively to the social and cultural experience of its beholders.

In this paper I will begin with a survey of Tsun-shih's place in Pure Land hagiography and his treatment in secondary scholarship. Through close reading of views and issues that define his Pure Land practice,seeking also to situate them in relation to specific social and historical factors that shaped his career as a whole. Particularly central are his campaigns to normalize popular religion and to promote Buddhism as a spiritual benefactor of the Sung court. I will conclude by returning briefly to reflect upon his treatment by later Pure Land Buddhist reformers and modern scholars of Buddhism.

慈雲遵式(964-1032)被認為不僅是北宋天台宗的主中興人物,且也隱約的影響了宋代及以後的淨土佛教. 他的生平經常被收在與淨土傳記作家的心目中成一盞明燈. 他有關淨土修行的四篇短文(大部分談的是淨土懺悔),也同樣經常被後世淨土作者所引用,當作是正統淨土修行的權威模式. 本文的目標有二:一是探討遵式的淨土著作,以說明他的淨土思想和修持,及任何顯著的緊張面向或關懷面; 二是研究他的教法和歷史背景的關係,釐清他如何在時代脈動中運作,並發展出後來的作品.

一般人總認為淨土的救世論是傾向於「他世」,或完全著重在往生極樂世界之上; 與此相反的,遵式的救世論也同樣重視「現世」的社會和文化. 他所認為往生極樂世界的條件(很多顯然都是社會性的條件),及他所認為有助淨土信徒及其社會的「現世利益」都可以看出他的此種關懷. 我們可以說,遵式的淨土行指導原則,本身就蘊藏著在極樂世界的修行原則:淨土的「淨」,具體地存在有資格往生極樂的「淨業」之上. 此「把淨土帶回地球」的主張,使淨土的修行和思想具體地落實於人類的社會和歷史中,不由得讓我們想到在討論淨土思想和虔信(包括「阿彌陀佛是本性」及「唯心淨土」的教理)時,如何反應在淨土行人的社會何文經驗上.

本文首先介紹遵式在淨土聖賢錄中的地位,及學術界的相關研究. 仔細閱讀他的作品後,作者將說明他對淨土行的觀點和議題,並企圖了解這些觀點和議題所產生的社會和歷史背景. 尤其特別討論他如何將庶民宗教予以正常化,又如何宏揚佛法使之成宋朝宮廷的護持者. 結論時,簡單回到後世佛教改革者和現代佛教學者對他的定位.
ISBN9578473567
ヒット数374
作成日2000.12.05
更新日期2016.09.13



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