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非行非坐三昧之修學=Cultivating the Samādhi Through Neither Walking Nor Sitting
著者 釋大寂 (著)=Shih, Da-ji (au.)
掲載誌 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
巻号n.7
出版年月日2007.07.01
ページ137 - 176
出版者玄奘大學宗教學研究所
出版サイト http://ird.hcu.edu.tw/front/bin/home.phtml
出版地新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者屬於華梵大學東方人文思想研究所博士班
キーワード非行非坐三昧=Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi; 止觀=?amatha and vipa?yanā; 智者大師=Chih-i
抄録本文〈非行非坐三昧之修學〉以《摩訶止觀》為主要文獻依據,《摩訶止觀》乃智者大師(538-597)晚期的作品,其思想已達非常圓熟之境地,可從中看到智顗之智慧結晶。「非行非坐三昧」通行坐及一切事,是智者大師獨創的名詞,因為它是智者大師講完前三種三昧後,為了形成佛法慣用的「四句文法」,故隨順提出此三昧。智顗仍然按照往例——即前三種三昧——而以《請觀音經》作為非行非坐三昧的理論根據,或許這是為了對他自己所提出的行法表示負責。由於非行非坐三昧不拘時地、歷一切事而修,一切事落在現實界即有善事、惡事及無記事之分,故智顗分別從這三方面來闡述其教法。歷諸善方面,菩薩所行之善不外乎行六度,行六度時,於內受方面有「六受」,於外作方面有「六作」,是故歷諸善即以六度之善,行於此十二事。於善中生貪時,可以具體使用「四十八句」之四運來觀修。「歷諸惡」是智顗指出有一類人,事逢戰亂,或者身在官場,在如此的人、事環境條件下,貪瞋癡之惡有時候極為旺盛,若不能允許這種人於惡中修道,難道要眼睜睜看著他沈淪於生死苦海嗎!智顗對一般人並不勸修,因為人的心本來就充滿貪瞋癡了。另有一類人根性本無善惡,不會特別去做好事或壞事,因此智顗又特別開出無記法來攝受這類的眾生,令他們不再於佛法遲緩。智顗的非行非坐三昧是一種包容性相當大的法門,不僅在開宗時就指明利根人修之最好,以意念細膩難掌握故;而且也在歷諸惡與無記時,對其餘的眾生廣開方便之門。但是,智顗以時代因緣故,遭遇皇帝滅佛之事,終究不勸修此法門,可做為佛教界之借境。

Mo-ho chih-kuan is used as the major reference in this thesis, it is the
work of Chih-i (538–597) in late period, the very perfect state of his thought
had been achieved, so we can see the achievement of his wisdom. “Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi,” applied to walking, sitting and everything, is a noun created by the master Chih-i himself. After Chih-i finished explaining three kinds of samādhi forward in order to make for “four negative propositions” used usually in Buddhist doctrine, so he mentioned the samādhi in passing. Chih-i used ch’ing Kuan-yin repentance as basis of the theory about Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi according to the examples earlier, i.e. three kinds of samādhi forward, perhaps he showed responsibility for the theory created by himself. All activities with reality can be divided into wholesome activities, unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, Chih-i expounded his theory separately from these three aspects because Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi doesn’t be limited to any time or space, and can be cultivated by experiencing all activities. The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to wholesome activities is that six perfections are no more than how many good works Bodhisattva does, when making six perfections, six perceptions are the part of the internal, six acts are the part of the external, so resorting to wholesome activities deal with twelve forms of activity in total by good of six perfections. When greediness arise from good, we can concretely use “forty-eight propositions” about the four phases of mental activation to solve it.
The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to unwholesome activities is that Chih-i pointed out some people suffered chaos caused by war or are in officialdom, when they are in the condition of circumstances of personnel matters, evil of greediness, anger and ignorance is sometiems very flourishing. If we didn’t permit them to cultivate samādhi in evil, we would
see them helplessly sinking into suffering sea of birth and death. Chih-i didn’t exhort general public to practice because of human heart full of greediness, anger and ignorance originally. Another people don’t have good
or bad nature of mind originally, they can’t do good or bad works additionally, so Chih-i also designed the activities specially, which do not
have any particular moral valence, to contain this kind of living creatures
and make them not be slow on Buddha’s teaching. Chih-i’s Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi is a kind of way to contain all situation. Not only, when starting, he pointed out that it’s the best way for wise man to practice it, because thought is too subtle to master. But also, when experiencing unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, he opened the door of convenient way for other human being. However, because of that time, Chih-i encountered emperor to extinguish something about Buddha. It’s the reason why he didn’t encourage people to practice this way and it could be the reflection of mirror for Buddhism.
目次一、緒論 141
(一)研究動機與目的
(二)研究範圍與方法
二、何謂非行非坐三昧(Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi) 144
(一)《請觀音經》(ch’ing Kuan-yin repentance11)要義與《摩訶止觀》非行非坐三昧相關

(二)四運觀(the four phases or marks of mental activation25)
三、從經歷諸善(wholesome activities31)中增長智慧 152
(一)六受(six perceptions)
(二)六作(six acts)
四、從經歷諸惡與無記中增長智慧 162
(一)歷諸惡(unwholesome activities)
(二)歷無記(activities that do not have any particular moral valence)
五、不勸修 168
六、結論 171
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
ヒット数453
作成日2010.08.13
更新日期2017.12.01



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