|從《劉師禮文》談中印文化的匯流=The Confluence of the Chinese and Indian Cultures : A Discussion Focusing upon the Writ of Master Liu's Ritual 劉師禮文
方廣錩 (著)=Fang, Guang-chang (au.)
国際仏教学大学院大学研究紀要=Journal of the International College for Advanced Buddhist Studies=コクサイ ブッキョウガク ダイガクイン ダイガク ケンキュウ キヨウ
|114 - 100
|東京, 日本 [Tokyo, Japan]
|The first part of the article offers an edition and study of the Writ of Master Liu's Ritual (Liu shi li wen劉師禮文), a brief text found in the Dunhuang manuscript no.4494 of the Stein Collection (British Library). The text contains succinct instructions concerning the right time and direction of monthly worship throughout the year. The time and place patterns clearly represent notions typical of the traditional Chinese culture. The rite is said to purify myriads of sins, and its scrupulous practice for three years allegedly enables the believer to attain the Path得道, have all wishes fulfilled所愿隨意, and gain rebirth in the Land of Sublime Bliss of the West西方妙樂國土or in the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods卅三天. The examination of various historical sources leads me to conclude that 'Master Liu'劉師must be Liu Sahe劉薩訶(fl.412-427), whose biography is found in the Gao seng zhuan高〓傅and the Xu gao seng zhuan 續高〓傅. In the second part of the paper, I argue that the influence of the Chinese culture must have reached a large geographical area including not only Central Asia but also the Indian subcontinent. And this was probably reflected in the content of some Buddhist scriptures compiled in Central Asia as well as in India. Later some of these texts must have been translated into Chinese as authentic Buddhist scriptures, and this reverse export, so to speak, made its unique contribution to the development of the Chinese Buddhism. This type of Buddhist literature should be regarded not as the monolithic product of the Indian culture. My contention is that even when compiled in India, a number of Buddhist texts may actually represent the confluence of many cultural influences, some of which originated in China. This is an important methodological point which must be borne in mind when also discussing the so-called 'apocryphal texts' produced on Chinese soil.
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