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Moving Mountain: Mount Wutai Traditions at Japan’s Tōnomine=山之流變: 五臺山傳統在日本多武峯的體現
著者 Andrews, Susan (著)=安素桑 (au.)
掲載誌 一山而五頂:多學科、跨方域、多文化視野中的五臺信仰研究國際學術研討會=An International Conference The Mountain of Five Plateaus: Studies of The Wutai Cult in Multidisciplinary and Transborder/Cultural Approaches
出版年月日2015.07
出版者山西省佛教協會
出版地山西, 中國 [Shanxi, China]
資料の種類會議論文=Proceeding Article
言語英文=English
ノート主辦方: 山西省佛教協會
作者單位:加拿大阿里森山大學=University of Mount Allison, Canada
抄録 In the seventh century Mount Wutai 五臺山emerged as the foremost sacred place in Tang China (618-907). Its holy status was rooted largely in scriptural claims that the mountain was home to the Buddhist deity Mañjuśrī 文殊. While the scholarship of Lin Yunrou 林韻柔 (2009) and Raoul Birnbaum (1983, 2004) among others has revealed much about the mountain’s history within China’s borders, it has had considerably less to say about the territory’s later and larger East Asian significance. Taking as my starting point Mount Wutai’s replication at Kōchi’s 高知Godaisan 五臺山, in this paper I endeavor to suggest what the mapping of Mount Wutai’s landscapes—real and imagined—onto Japanese soil accomplished in the Heian (794-1185) and Kamakura (1185-1333) periods.
As the statuary, inscriptions, temple gazetteers, and monastic biographies around which this paper is built establish, the practice of linking structures outside Tang and Song China to Wutai “originals” was not restricted to Godaisan. Quite the opposite, tradition recorded in Seiin’s 静胤 (c. 1197) twelfth-century Tōnomine ryakki 多武峰略記 (A Brief History of Mount Tōnomine) and documents discovered within the cavity of the famous Seiryōji shaka nyorai zō 淸涼寺釋迦如來像 (The Seiryō Temple Sculpture of Śākyamuni Tathāgata), for instance, holds that the mountain served as a template for the creation of structures atop Mount Atago 愛宕山 and Mount Tōnomine 多武峰.
With Mount Wutai’s replication at this triad of Japanese sites—Godaisan, Atago, and Tōnomine— at the center of my inquiry, in this paper I will examine relationships between the past and the present; reception and re-presentation; the local and the translocal contexts of religious practice and belief. The types of broader questions that will orient my exploration of Mount Wutai’s replication across the Japanese archipelago between the seventh and fourteenth centuries will include: How do local religious communities differently interpret and strategically apply received traditions? What relationship obtains between the creation of local holy place and the fashioning of religious identities that are not territorially bound? What does the writing and rewriting of the past accomplish for successive generations of practitioners? Highlighting the role that replication played in the growth in scale and geographic reach of the Wutai world, this investigation should call attention to the value of examining local traditions in their larger East Asian context.

在七世紀時,五臺山成為唐代中國(618-907)最重要的聖地。而該神聖地位之獲取,在很大程度得力於佛經所聲稱的五臺山乃文殊菩薩道場所在。林韻柔(2009)及歐陽瑞Raoul Birnbaum(1983,2004)等學者,已經就五臺山在中國境內的歷史作了相當揭示。但是,關於五臺山在此後以及在更大的東亞範圍內的重要性,至今還少論述。本文以日本高知五臺山對中國五臺山的複製為起點,試圖揭示出在平安和鐮倉時代,把真實和想像中的五臺山景觀映射到日本土壤時,所得為何。
通過考察塑像、碑銘、寺志和僧傳資料,本文發現唐、宋時把非中國的建築與五臺山“原型”聯繫起來的做法,並不限於高知五臺山一地。事實正與此相反。例如,12世紀靜胤 (約活動於1197年)所著的《多武峰略記》以及在著名的淸涼寺釋迦如來像佛臟裡發現的文獻,證明了愛宕山及多武峰峰頂的設計,皆以五臺山為範本。
本文以日本高知五台、愛宕山和多武峰這三地對中國五臺山的複製為中心,考察了過去與現在、接受與再現、宗教實踐與信念在地域內及跨地域間的關係。我將在一些更大問題的關照下,探索7-14世紀五臺山在日本境內的複製。這些問題包括:地方宗教團體如何對現存宗教傳統進行不同解讀並加以策略性運用?創造地方性的聖地與形成不受地域限制的宗教身份之間,是一種什麼關係?對過去的書寫與重述,給後代宗教修行者造成了什麼影響?在五臺山的世界裡,在其規模及地理可接觸性的增長中,復製皆發揮了作用。通過凸現這種作用,本文應可喚起學者對在更大的東亞範圍內考察地方傳統的關注。
ヒット数26
作成日2020.10.16
更新日期2020.10.27



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