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藏譯佛典譯語初探 —— 以藏文《心經》為中心=An attempt to investigate the language evolution of Tibetan translation of Buddhist scriptures — with an emphasis on the Tibetan translation of the “Heart Sutra”
著者 蘇南望傑=Sonam Wanggyal
掲載誌 正觀雜誌=Satyabhisamaya: A Buddhist Studies Quarterly
巻号n.96
出版年月日2021.03.25
ページ55 - 154
出版者正觀雜誌社
出版サイト http://www.tt034.org.tw/
出版地南投縣, 臺灣 [Nantou hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者單位:法鼓文理學院佛教學系助理教授 Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts
キーワード藏譯佛典研究=Studies of Tibetan translation of Buddhist scriptures; 《甘珠爾》=Kanjur; 新舊譯語=old and new translation terminology; 佛典傳譯; 藏文《心經》=the Tibetan version of the Heart Sutra; P.T.449號=P.T. No.449; The two volume grammar text (sGra sbyor ban gnyis); Mahavyutpatti (Bye brag rtog byed)
抄録近年來學界研究注意到藏譯佛典中近代的文本存在不少「修正」的痕跡,通過比對研究也發現,較為古老的藏譯佛典血本往往與梵文或原文較為一致。因此也對於廣泛流通的木刻本「存疑」,同時對所謂「東部系統」的蔡巴「西部系統」的延邦瑪,兩大《甘珠爾》主要系統之歷史文本開始受到學界的重視,另外隨著愈來愈多的諸如普札(Phug brag)、塔波(Ta pho)、巴塘(‘Ba’thang)等所謂「孤本(Proto)」之發現,使得相關研究成果也陸續出現。
再者敦煌藏文文獻應視為目前現存最早的藏譯佛典文獻之一,時間可追溯到8至9世紀,內容包括小乘、顯密等所有經論,其數量相當可觀。這些文獻對於想要了解藏譯佛典最早的譯經歷史;認識吐蕃王朝贊普時代「文字釐訂」及「欽定譯語」時期佛典翻譯用語所發生的前後變化;《聲明要領二卷》、《翻譯名義大集》等官方所訂定的譯語彙整資料等,相信這對於了解最初藏譯佛典原貌具有重要意義。
本文依據上述譯經歷史及文獻,以近代流通最廣的《德格版》「藏文《心經》」為主軸,嘗試以法藏敦煌藏文文獻如P.T.447、P.T.449、P.T.457;英藏敦煌西域藏文文獻如IOL.Tib.J.VOL.31、IOL.Tib.J.VOL.32等幾篇寫本,並結合原先屬於東、西部系統版本的寫本及近代大量流通的那塘、北京、拉薩等木刻本作為相互比較資料,以「藏文《心經》」為中心,試圖探討藏譯佛典新、舊譯語之演化、版本間的差異性、語順、詞性的改變、簡化構成字母及後期版本所出現的「修正」痕跡。
近年來佛典傳譯計畫盛行,譯者個人或團隊將某一經典新譯為其他語言之前,應先對該經典的翻譯史,不同文本,以及文本間的差異性,文本校勘、考證等,進行謹慎仔細的文獻學研究,使經典傳譯事業更經得起檢驗,這也是本稿研究之意義所在。

In recent years, the “modification” found in contemporary Tibetan translation of Buddhist scriptures has attracted the attention of academia. Through the study and comparison of these scriptures with ancient Tibetan translations, it has been discerned that they are more consistent with Sanskrit or original manuscripts than the more recent versions. Consequently, this leads to the “suspicion of correctness” by academics about the more recent and popular wood carved print translations, while the two major ancient versions of the historical text Kanjur — the Tshelpa from the east and the Tempangma from the west — are considered more credible. Moreover, with the discovery of the orphan copies 〔Proto(s)〕 in Phug brag, Ta pho and ‘Ba’thang, these ancient manuscripts have gradually become accessible for researchers.
The Tibetan Dunhuang Manuscripts are regarded as some of the earliest existing Buddhist texts in the Tibetan language. They data back to between the eighth and ninth centuries. The number of volumes in this collection is impressive and the content includes Theravadan, Mahayana, and Tantric sutras, as well as commentaries. These treatises are valuable sources for understanding the earliest history of Tibetan translation of the Buddhist scriptures; forlearning the transition of the lexicon for the Buddhist treatises according to the principles of “uniformed terminology definition” and “imperial authorized word lists” from the Tsenpo era of the Bod Chen Po Kingdom; and for acquiring official compilation of etymological treatment of Sanskrit terms from two volumes of grammar texts the sGra sbyor bam gnyis and Bye brag rtog byed. I believe the above knowledge will be helpful for accessing the original meaning of the earliest Tibetan translations of Buddhist texts.
This thesis is an attemot to study the change of terminology from the early Tibetan translations to the modern versions. The references include the aforementioned history of translation as well as the following literature. The main text to be examined will be the Tergar version of the Tibetan Heart Sutra, along with studies of a few hand copies from the French collection of the Dunhuang manuscripts (e.g. P.T. 447, P.T. 449, and P.T. 457) and the British collection of Dunhuang and Western area Tibetan manuscripts (e.g. IOL.Tib.J.VOL.31, and IOL.Tib.J.VOL.32. ) In addition toexamining and discussing the Tibetan Heart Sutra, this thesis will juxtapose the east and the west Tibetan hand copies with the wood carved print copies from Narthang, Beijing and Lhasa, which enjoyed wide circulation. They are referenced in order to examine the differences between translation versions, word order, part of speech, simplification of the alphabet and the modifications that havebeen discovered in the modern translations.
目次一、前言 57
(一)、前弘期佛典目錄 57
(二)、後弘期佛典目錄 58
(三)、重要漢藏互譯之譯師 59
二、藏文大藏經《甘珠爾》系統及藏文《心經》 60
三、藏文《心經》科判 71
四、藏文《心經》主要文本內文對比分析及譯語之演化 75
(一)、內文對比分析 75
(二)、譯語之演化 117
五、藏文《心經》譯語之演化綜合分析 120
六、結語 131
ISSN16099575 (P)
ヒット数315
作成日2021.05.04
更新日期2021.06.25



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