|漢譯 『金光明經』의 佛身論에 관한 연구 -- 중국의 三身一體 佛身論 전개를 중심으로=STUDY ON BUDDHA-KAYA IN CHINESE TRANSLATION OF 'KUM-KWANG-MYUNG-SUTRA' -- Regarding to Development of Chinese Buddha-kaya on the Theory of Three Body in One
|215 - 232
|저자정보: 동국대 불교문화연구원 연구교수
|In the history of Buddhism, the notion that longevity of the real Buddha's life is related to everlasting existence and finally linked to Buddha-kaya and Buddhahood. But establishing something of everlasting existence, though it is for Buddha, renders problem. It is apparent from the question described in the Avyakāta-vāda among the context of primitive Buddhism 'whether or not Buddha is in existence after death'. From the original viewpoint of Buddhism, the Buddhist doctrine that Buddha's character and Buddha-kaya are not everlasting and immutable being is right conception.
The introduction and development of Buddhism in China were through translated and annotated sutra. Accordingly, the issue of Buddha-kaya can be examined in various methods. This study closely reviews 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra'(金光明經) in which life span and the theory of the three bodies(三身) of a Buddha are described and attempts to draw conclusion of the development process of Buddha-kaya through the perceptive attitude of Chinese scholars who annotated the sutra. 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra' has lost the authority in later days and is almost not studied. Yet the sutra contains independent works on Buddha-kaya among early Mahayana sutra, attracting serious attention as long as Buddha-kaya is concerned.
Author considers that Buddhism is characterized in adaptability of thoughts and unity. This short article reviewed the process of development in such thought adaptability and unity through Buddha-kaya described in 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra'. The three body indicates the three kind of Buddha-kaya (character), namely, Dharma-body(法身), Reward-body(報身) and Accommodative body(應身), yet in 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra', the three body is Dharma-body(法身), Accommodative body(應身) and Incarnation body(化身). Buddha-kaya in "The life of the Tathāgata Work" and "The three body of the Tathāgata Work" in 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra', is made between the period span from non-existence of three body and to the period in which it is not characterized independently. Even if Buddha-kaya confirmed in 'Kum-Kwang-Myung-Sutra' shows the aspect of regarding to Dharma-body in various places, the fact that awakening is the base in Buddhism is emphasized. Furthermore, it confirms the Buddha-kaya theory that Buddha is established when three public activities are equipped. First, specifically, it explains moderately the samādhi(三昧) and wisdom in Dharma-body though the three body is not equipped with three physical bodies. Secondly, it make us understand that the being without the three aspects of faith(三心) is Buddha who accomplished the three body because ordinary people acquire Buddha-kaya when they eliminate the three aspects of faith(三心). It implies that they became moderate real being(實相) getting rid of the status as ordinary people. Such moderate law body
is understood as three body as a whole instead of separation from other two body and perceived further as one body of three body which contains other two body in two body. The Buddha-kaya in the Chinese history of Buddhism was accordingly understood without the discrepancy of whether or not of belonging to existence theory after Buddha's death.
|1. 들어가는 말 216
2. 『金光明經』의 佛身論 217
2-1. 『金光明經』 「如來壽量品」 (이하 「수량품」 )의 佛身觀 218
2-2. 『金光明經』 「三身分別品」 (= 「삼신품」 )의 佛身觀 220
3. 나가는 글 228
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