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《永樂北藏》的題記、牌記研究=The Yongle Northern Canon: Its Colophons and Inscriptions
著者 龍達瑞 (著)=Long, Da-rui (au.)
掲載誌 佛光學報=Fo Guang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.1 新8卷
出版年月日2022.01
ページ81 - 144
出版者佛光大學佛教研究中心
出版サイト https://cbs.fgu.edu.tw/
出版地宜蘭縣, 臺灣 [I-lan hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者單位:美國西來大學宗教系教授
キーワード《永樂北藏》=Yongle Northern Canon; 題記=colophons; 牌記=inscriptions in the steles; 慈隆寺=Cilong Temple; 郝氏=Lady Hao
抄録《永樂北藏》是明成祖(1402-1424年在位)於1419年在北京開始刊刻的一部大藏經,初刻竣工於1440年,全藏636函。明神宗(1573-1620年在位)時增加了41函,總計677函,6771卷。經過五百多年的滄桑,絕大多數印本已經毀於各種災害或戰亂。根據調查,存世的《永樂北藏》僅有約三十套,且大多數都有殘缺。筆者從2009年起開始對普林斯頓大學東亞圖書館保存的一套不完全的《永樂北藏》進行研究,發現了一些新材料,因而決定繼續對存世的《永樂北藏》進行調查研究。十多年來,走訪了中國、美國與波蘭等地珍藏有《永樂北藏》的圖書館、博物館和佛教寺院。通過親自翻檢大藏經,認識到每部大藏經都可能有其特點。這些特點包括皇帝的敕令、題記、印章、捐資人、閱讀大藏經的讀者、護板的綢緞等等。大藏經是皇帝賜給寺院的,寺院要修藏經樓,並立碑樹傳。日後保護大藏經也是要記載的,如南方寺院為了防止蟲蛀經書,定期舉行曬經會,邀請居士們來寺院翻曬經書。這些都是以往的研究沒有注意到的問題。

筆者通過十二年走訪寺院、圖書館、博物館拍攝的照片,對普林斯頓大學東亞圖書館、遼寧省圖書館、重慶市圖書館、波蘭亞蓋隆大學圖書館珍藏的《永樂北藏》進行初步分析。冀望能抛磚引玉,引發更多的學者關心並參與對大藏經的研究。

The engraving of the Yongle Northern Canon was initiated by Emperor Chengzu 明成祖 (r.1402-1424) in Beijing in 1419. It was not until 1440 that the project was completed with a total of 636 cases. 41 cases were added during the early years of Emperor Shenzong 明神宗 (r. 1573-1620), totaling 677 cases with 6771 volumes.

Most of the prints were destroyed in the past five centuries due to natural disasters and social havocs. According to an investigation conducted by a group of curators of major libraries in China in the 1980s, a mere 30 sets of the Yongle Northern Canon were extant in various libraries, museums and temples. Many of them are fragmentary.

I started to examine the edition of the canon kept in Princeton University’s East Asian Library in 2009. As I found new materials which scholars had heretofore neglected, I proceeded to do research in the other libraries and temples where a set of Yongle Northern Canon is kept. I have traveled far and wide to libraries, museums and temples in China, the US and Poland, examining the extant copies. The more sets of the canon I examined, the more I realized that each edition may have its own characteristics, such as imperial decrees, colophons by the royal family members, seals, donators, and readers, and even front and back covers.

When the emperor donated an edition of the canon to a temple, it was the temple abbot’s responsibility to build a library to house the canon. A stele would be erected in memory of the event. As the canon was the treasure of the temple, monks would take measures to prevent damage by bookworms and natural disasters. Abbots usually invited lay devotees to assist with sunning the canon in order to drive away bookworms. These matters have generally gone unnoticed by scholars.

In the past twelve years, I have taken thousands of photos of the Yongle Northern Canon in temples, libraries and museums. I have made a preliminary analysis of the copies kept in the Princeton University library, the Liaoning Provincial library, Chongqing City Library and the library of Jagiellonian University in Poland. Additionally, I have analyzed the colophons of the canons kept in various libraries and temples. It is hoped that this rudimentary work will catalyze interest and further study of the Buddhist canon.
目次一、《永樂北藏》介紹 85
二、《永樂北藏》的題記與皇家的關係 92
三、普林斯頓大學和遼寧省圖書館珍藏的《永樂北藏》的題記 98
四、重慶市圖書館珍藏的《永樂北藏》 108
五、明《永樂北藏》護板的織錦 110
六、結論 112
附錄 116
ISSN24143006 (P)
ヒット数214
作成日2022.02.16
更新日期2023.05.23



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