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永明延壽的頓悟頓修:唐代禪宗修證論的繼承和轉化=Yongming Yanshou’s Sudden Enlightenment and Sudden Practice: The Inheritance and Transformation of Tang Dynasty Theories of Cultivation and Realization
著者 柳幹康 (著)=Yanagi, Mikiyasu (au.)
掲載誌 선학=禪學=Journal of Seon Studies
巻号v.45 n.0
出版年月日2016.12.30
ページ43 - 82
出版者韓國禪學會
出版サイト http://www.seonstudy.org/seon/
出版地Korea [韓國]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート著者所屬: 花園大學國際禪學硏究所專任講師
キーワード永明延壽=Yongming Yanshou; 荷澤神會=Heze Shenhui; 馬祖道一=Mazu Daoyi; 圭峰宗密=Guifeng Zongmi; 頓悟頓修=Sudden Enlightenment and Sudden Practice; 頓悟漸修=Sudden Enlightenment with Gradual Practice
抄録筆者本文試圖釐淸永明延壽(904-976)如何繼承了唐代禪宗的修證論(有關證悟和修行的理論),幷進而在該領域建立自己的理論.
印度以來的傳統佛敎都認爲衆生於此生無法成佛, 而唐代成立的禪宗卻認爲人在此一瞬間本來是佛, 因此有必要重新檢討證悟和修行的關係.拙論分析了從神會歷經馬祖、 宗密再到延壽的修證論變遷的完成過程.神會、 馬祖和宗密不僅在禪宗思想史上佔有重要地位, 其對於理解延壽的修證論也非常重要.
神會(684-758)一方面主張所謂「南頓北漸」, 提倡「漸悟」的北宗神秀遠不如提倡「頓悟」的南宗慧能, 一方面又主張「頓悟」後尙需 「漸修」, 以便增强智慧 不過神會很少提到 「漸修」, 對其評價也不淸楚.
馬祖(709-788)認爲衆生的心本就是佛(卽心是佛), 人需要做的只是頓悟這一道理 據此立場, 他否定了以成佛爲目標的一切修行, 幷認爲頓悟後唯需「任運」過時卽可 宗密(780-841)批評馬祖的 「頓悟」只是不完整的覺悟, 稱其爲「任病」(邪惡的任運之病) 他對神會給予了高度評價, 幷主張人因爲頓悟後留有煩惱, 所以仍需「漸修」以祛除.
延壽一方面攝取了宗密的 「頓悟漸修」當做誘導劣根的方便法門, 另一方面又主張馬祖的 「任運」正是佛陀的行爲, 把它當做上上根(最優秀根機)所進行的 「頓悟頓修」 此外, 他又爲修行過程增設了具體的起點 延壽的修證論, 終於完成了從「此生無法成佛」的傳統佛敎觀到 「此生能夠成佛」 的新理解的全面轉變.

In this paper I shed light on how Yongming Yanshou (904―976) himself inherited and built upon Chan Buddhist theories involving the cultivation of enlightenment from the Tang period.
In the traditional Buddhist understanding which came from India it was not thought that living beings could attain enlightenment and become buddhas in this present life. In the Chan Buddhism that emerged in the Tang period, however, the position that people are already buddhas in this present moment raised new discussions and ideas about enlightenment and practice. In order to shed light on Yongming Yanshou’s theories of practice and enlightenment, in my opinion it is necessary to analyze the progression of theories of practice and enlightenment from the three essential figures Shenhui, Mazu, and Zongmi and how their thoughts came to Yongming Yanshou.
Shenhui (684-758) promoted what is called the “southern sudden, northern gradual” theory- “sudden enlightenment” was promoted by the true dharma heir Huineng, while “gradual enlightenment was promoted by the divergent Northern School of Shenxiu- even though after attaining enlightenment suddenly, gradual practice would be needed later to strengthen wisdom. As Shenhui does not discuss gradual practice very much, it is unclear what position it has in his thought.
Mazu (709-788) maintains that the mind of sentient beings is in itself buddha (ji xin shi fo 卽心是佛), and it only remains that one suddenly awaken to this truth. From the position that the mind is already buddha, all practice in order to become a buddha is rejected and after sudden awakening one only has to as it is (ren yun 任運).
Zongmi (780-841) criticized Mazu’s sudden awakening as not complete enlightenment and “the sickness of resigning oneself to reality as it is” (ren bing 任病). While on the one hand Zongmi gave a high appraisal to Shenhui, according to him gradual practice would be necessary as afflictions would be left after sudden enlightenment.
While Yongshou accepted Zongmi’s “sudden enlightenment with gradual practice” with weak aptitude for cultivating the dharma, but the circumstances for those with the most excellent faculties for cultivating the dharma (shang shang gen 上上根) are attaining enlightenment and completing practice suddenly where he viewed Mazu’s effortlessly resigning oneself to reality (任運) as the actions of a buddha. In short, Yanshou’s theory of attainment and practice led people from the traditional Buddhist view where “it is impossible to become a buddha in this life” to the new view where “one can become a buddha in this life.”

目次內容提要 43
一, 導論 44
二, 神會宣揚 「頓悟」:否定修行開悟, 主張本來開悟 46
三, 馬祖貫徹 「頓悟」:本來成佛, 不用修行 50
四, 宗密 「頓悟漸修」 論:批判馬祖禪幷看重修行 55
(一)批判馬祖 56
(二)宗密修證論 59
(三)實踐體系 62
五, 延壽 「頓悟頓修」 論:重新結合證悟與修行 64
(一)繼承宗密修證論幷換骨奪胎 64
(二)重新規定修行 69
(三)重新評價馬祖禪 72
(四)實踐體系 74
六, 結論 75
略號 78
參考文獻 78
Abstract 81
ISSN15980588 (P)
ヒット数184
作成日2022.05.24
更新日期2022.05.24



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