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邏輯與唯識:護法《成唯識寶生論》對因明之使用=Logic and Consciousness-Only: Dharmapāla’s Application of Hetuvidyā in the Cheng Weishi Baosheng Lun
著者 胡志強 (著)=Hu, Chih-chiang (au.)
掲載誌 2021 第八屆漢傳佛教與聖嚴思想國際學術研討會
出版年月日2021.06.30
出版者財團法人聖嚴教育基金會
出版サイト https://www.shengyen.org.tw/index.aspx?lang=cht
出版地臺北, 臺灣 [Taipei, Taiwan]
資料の種類會議論文=Proceeding Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード護法=Dharmapāla; 成唯識寶生論=Cheng Weishi Baosheng Lun; 因明=Hetuvidyā; 世親=Vasubandhu; 唯識二十論=Viṃśikā
抄録玄奘(602–664)翻譯了陳那(Dignāga 約480–540)《因明正理門論》(Nyāyamukha)、商羯羅主(Śaṅkarasvāmin)《因明入正理論》(Nyāyapraveśa),並且藉著其翻譯以及對弟子的解說,陳那新因明被系統性地帶進中國。此後因明在中國如何被理解與運用、如何被融攝或被忽視與再起等問題都是有趣的,然而玄奘在印度時,因明又是如何被理解與運用呢?除了玄奘自己的講授之外,護法(Dharmapāla 530-561)在《成唯識寶生論》中的運用會是思想史研究非常有價值的材料。

《寶生論》是護法對世親(Vasubandhu 約4–5 世紀)《唯識二十論》(Viṃśikāvṛtti)的重要註釋書。或許因為文本內容艱深,且僅存之義淨譯文多處難以解讀,因而過去對《寶生論》的研究有所欠缺與不足。然而《寶生論》在唯識思想研究、印度與漢傳唯識思想史研究具有其重要價值,而且護法師承陳那而使用因明(佛教邏輯)來詮釋並論證《二十論》與唯識思想,也使得此文本更具特殊性。就此而言,《寶生論》的研究一方面可以幫助我們重新解讀《二十論》,特別是從因明論證的角度來看;另一方面也得以研究護法如何理解、使用因明,或者當時的人如何使用因明,亦即具有因明研究、因明思想史研究的價值。

本文探討護法如何以因明作為其詮釋工具。第一節引言指出,護法以因明作為解經工具,可以讓我們更瞭解文本隱藏的理路、掌握其論證架構。第二節依照護法《寶生論》的詮釋,解讀《二十論》中最主要的因明立、破。《二十論》前面成立了自宗之後,後續自然地論敵還有很多可能的質疑或回應(難),在辯論過程中,護法繼續運用因明指出論敵在宗、因、喻上所犯的似能立( sādhanābhāsa )、似能破(dūṣaṇābhāsa)的許多過失(破)。第三節對此整理了一些文本中的案例,由各個案例來解讀、分析護法對因明之使用。第四節討論如何從護法的觀點來看待《二十論》,並對比Birgit Kellner 與John Taber(2014)之詮釋。另外,也嘗試分析因明論證的利弊得失。筆者認為護法從因明立自破他的解讀更能呼應,世親在《二十論》最後所說的:「我已隨自能,略成唯識義(vijñaptimātratāsiddhi)」(CBETA,T31,no. 1590,p. 77,b2),亦即,從因明成立了一切唯識。

本文希望有助於彌補現有佛教思想史研究的某些不足之處,例如,在當時的印度脈絡下,佛教教內、教外都有明確文獻證據顯示,人們認為《二十論》開宗明義使用因明立量以證成唯識,而且也有其他類似的因明論式被提出,而不是像Taber 等學者們所認為的:過去應沒有任何有聲望的佛教哲學家認真地提出此類的因明論證。對《寶生論》的研究,應有助於匡正這樣的錯誤主張。

With Xuanzang’s (玄奘602-664 C.E.) translations of the Nyāyamukha by Dignāga (480-540 C.E.) and of the Nyāyapraveśa by Śaṅkarasvāmin and with his own teachings and elaborations to his disciples, Indian Buddhist logic (hetuvidyā) was systematically, as a subject or science, brought into the Chinese context and somehow adapted in the Chinese tradition since then. The inquiry that in that distant land how this new science was interpreted, applied, and even transformed would, indeed, be interesting and important. However, how this science was interpreted, applied in India before and during Xuanzang’s staying there? In addition to Xuanzang’s legacies, Dharmapāla’s (530-561 C.E.) Cheng weishi baosheng lun (成唯識寶生論), in which he explicitly uses Buddhist logic to interpret and to argue for the doctrine of Consciousness-only and against his opponents, is a very valuable resource for us.

Cheng weishi baosheng lun, extant only in Chinese, is Dharmapāla’s commentary on Vasubandhu’s (4th to 5th century C.E.) classic Viṃśikā and its Vṛtti. However, unlike Viṃśikā, which is very popular, this work has been not well explored and even neglected. The reasons might be that there is no Sanskrit or Tibetan version, and many passages in the Chinese translation by Yijing (義淨) are difficult to be understood. Even though this text is obscure and sometimes ambiguous, it’s still worthy of our effort not only because of its complicated argumentation but also because of Dharmapāla’s significance in the history of Buddhist thought, especially in East Asia.

This paper will focus on Dharmapāla’s application of Buddhist logic in his Cheng weishi baosheng lun. Dharmapāla’s commentary, very different from Vinītadeva’s, specifically uses Buddhist logic (three-membered Indian syllogism) to interpret Vasubandhu’s arguments, and furthermore he summarizes the points with that same tool. After establishing the thesis, by pointing out that his opponents have fallacious means of refutation (dūṣaṇābhāsa) or fallacious means of proof (sādhanābhāsa), which means that their statements of proof are defective in respect of the thesis (pakṣa), the reason (hetu), or the example (dṛṣṭānta), Dharmapāla formulates his effective rebuttal to the counterarguments. Case by case, this paper will explore Dharmapāla’s style of argumentation in his own text. And in the end, with respect to hetuvidyā, a reading of Viṃśikā in Dharmapāla’s eyes will be briefly addressed.
ヒット数1
作成日2022.06.14



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