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五代永明延壽的佛教詮釋理論:──隋唐「判教」的繼承及其解構=Yongming Yanshou of the Five Dynasties Period Theory of Buddhist Hermanutics: Its Heritage from and Deconstruction of Sui and Tang Period Doctrinal Classification
著者 柳幹康 (著)=Yanagi, Mikiyasu (au.)
掲載誌 臺北大學中文學報=Journal of Chinese Language and Literature of National Taipei University
巻号n.19
出版年月日2016.03.01
ページ127 - 152
出版者國立台北大學中國語文學系
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート柳幹康,日本學術振興會海外特別研究員。
キーワード判教=doctrinal classification; 圭峰宗密=Guifeng Zongmi; 永明延壽=Yongming Yanshou; 宗鏡錄=Zongjinglu; 一心=one mind
抄録本文主要探討永明延壽(904-976)如何繼承隋唐之「判教」並建立了自己的佛教詮釋理論。古印度成立的諸多佛經本來異見紛呈,在漢末卻作為同一種「佛說」傳入中國,由此產生了詮釋佛經的必要性。隋唐時期許多僧人依據自己理解的「佛意」將佛經分類,試圖以此理解整個佛說。將佛說分為數個層次的詮釋理論,歷史上稱之為「判教」。中唐宗密(780-841)將其判教範圍擴大至新興的禪宗,但以分類為主的做法,與之前的判教體系並無二致。五代永明延壽從「以心為宗」的禪宗立場出發,一方面其「未入者」(未悟人)的看法,繼承了宗密及其之前的判教理論;另一方面其導入的「上上機」的觀點,則提出了與前此截然不同的佛教詮釋法。延壽認為,所有經典雖文字有別,然其所示對象(所詮)無非「一心」。由此,他認為最重要的並非經典分類,而是看破「一心」,而所謂「上上機」正是得見此種「一心」的根機。由之,延壽之前的判教都失去了原有意義,被吸納至延壽全新的佛教詮釋理論之中了。

This paper will discuss how Yongming Yanshou 永明延壽 (904-976) inherited the logic of panjiao 判教 (doctrinal classification) from the Buddhism of the Sui and Tang period, and established his own Buddhist hermeneutic framework upon it. Although the Buddhist scriptures created in India include a variety of different teachings and theories, because all these had been transmitted to China as "the word of the Buddha," by the end of the later Han period, Buddhist exegetes felt a need to interpret these all as part of a uniform system. By the Sui and Tang period, to create a uniform interpretation of the whole of the Buddha's teachings, many monks classified Buddhist scriptures based on their own understanding of "the Buddha's intention" (foyi 佛意). This method of interpretation, whereby the Buddha's teachings are classified into multiple levels, is known as "panjiao"判教, a term usually translated as "doctrinal classification." Although Zongmi 宗密 (780-841), a monk of the mid-Tang period, added the new and influential Chan (Zen) school to his purview of his analysis, panjiao remained principally a method to classify Buddhist texts. Later, during the Five Dynasties period (907-960), the Chan monk Yongming Yanshou developed his own doctrinal classification system based on the Chan school's point of view "taking the mind as the basis" (yi xin wei zong 以心為宗). On one hand, Yanshou's system carries on the tradition of inhered from Zongmi and his predecessors in describing how the weiruzhe 未入者 (person who has not yet entered [enlightenment]) sees the world, on the other hand, he presents an entirely new and different method for interpreting Buddhism in describing how the shangshangji 上上機 ([person with] the utmost conditions [for attaining enlightenment]) sees the world. Yanshou believed that for all of the Buddhist scriptures, although they differ in terms of language, they all have the same referent (suoquan 所詮), that is the "one mind" (yixin 一心). Because of this, the most important thing for Yanshou was not the classification of scriptures, per se, but the realization of this "one mind." Yanshou's shangshangji 上上機, therefore, referred to people who were able realize this "one mind." In this way, the original purpose of prior panjiao systems, that is to say, the classification of particular scriptures and teachings, is missing from Yanshou's system and is instead absorbed into this entirely new Buddhist hermeneutic.
目次摘要 127
Abstract 128
一、導論 130
二、隋唐三宗:判教的展開 131
(一)天台智顗「五時八教」 132
(二)慈恩窺基「三時八宗」 133
(三)賢首法藏「五教十宗」 134
三、中唐宗密的佛教詮釋理論 135
(一)宗密的「教相判釋」:判教的繼承與展開 136
(二)宗密的「禪教判釋」:判教對象的擴張 138
四、五代延壽的佛教詮釋理論 139
(一)延壽如何繼承宗密理論並加改變 140
(二)對人看法的轉變 143
(三)判教理論的解構 145
(四)延壽的論據 146
五、結論 148
參考文獻 150
ISSN19931638 (P)
ヒット数86
作成日2022.11.04
更新日期2022.11.04



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