近代佛教改革的地方性實踐: 以民國南京的寺廟、組織、信眾為中心=Buddhist Reformation In The Local Community: A Study On Buddhist Temples, Organizations and Believers In Republican Nanjing
著者 邵佳德 (著)=Shao, Jia-de (au.)
出版者The Chinese University of Hong Kong
出版サイト https://www.cuhk.edu.hk/chinese/index.html
出版地Hong Kong [香港]
資料の種類博碩士論文=Thesis and Dissertation
学校Chinese University of Hong Kong
学部・学科名Religious Studies
抄録民國佛教發展的一條主線是佛教的改革運動,這條線索串聯起了國家、寺僧、信眾,成為觀察和理解佛教如何回應時代劇變的關鍵。學術界對近代中國佛教史的研究中亦對佛教改革有所關注,但至少存在兩方面的不足:首先,關注的對象過於狹窄,局限在少數推行改革的"高僧"或居士的生平、思想上,故常將改革的藍圖當做了改革的實效,導致對民國佛教的特徵概括有所偏差;其次,未能從地方的視角出發,無法具體分析佛教在地方社區的各群體中扮演的複雜角色,因此對改革遭受抵制乃至失敗的原因分析不清。 / 本論文以民國時期(1912 - 1949)政治和佛教重鎮南京市的佛教寺廟、組織和信徒為中心,討論在政府和僧團自上而下的雙重改革計劃中,地方佛教如何進行回應。在研究方法上主要利用社會史、地方史的方法,通過解讀政府公文、檔案、佛教報刊、方誌寺誌、調查報告、時人文集等新、舊史料,結合量化的數據統計和質性的案例分析來呈現民國時首都南京的佛教狀況。 / 全文主體分四章展開,第一章主要透過數據展示南京佛寺、僧眾、廟產的概貌,第二、三兩章分別敘述國家和僧團建設首都模範佛教社群的嘗試及其成效,第四章分析南京城內信佛居士和民眾的實踐及其與佛教改革間的關係。本文的結論認為:相對於國家和僧團的初衷,佛教改革在南京的推行困境重重、收效甚微。其原因不可簡單歸為"保守"僧人的阻撓,"國家"內部的信仰和利益分歧使得政府主導的改革計劃大多被消解,而改革派僧人囿於現實條件而態度搖擺或方式不當也使得僧團主導的改革藍圖空有其名。地方的僧人、居士、信眾往往根據自身和當地的實際情況,在與各方勢力的斡旋中長期維持著他們認為最重要的佛教信仰、儀式和組織,比如佛教的禪、凈實踐、僧人的經懺傳統、寺院的法會香會等。最後在南京這樣的江浙中心城市,佛教所延續的傳統多過革新的成績。 / 通過考察南京的佛教改革進程,我們可以進一步修正甚或挑戰學界對近代佛教史的既有認知。第一,佛教在近代"宗教"/"迷信"的定義和分類中被作為合法的宗教,僧人的改革計劃亦有不少與政府的計劃重合,故佛教常被認作順應國家管制的代表。實則僧信的靈活抵制和佛教組織承擔的慈善、教育等公共角色經常違背國家意圖,這使得佛教也常成為讓政府世俗化計劃擱淺的"暗礁"。第二,在看似最具備改革條件的南京,佛教革新舉步維艱,民國時大多佛教徒反而熱衷於追求彼岸之解脫、重視儀式和神秘力量,這不同於學者通常總結的近代佛教的理性化、去傳統化、去神話化、心理化等現代特徵,兩種特點至少是並存的。第三,佛教改革的不徹底甚或失敗,並不意味其積重難返,反而表明在不同特徵的混融與競爭中各方的宗教需求都能得到滿足,這顯示了佛教社群的整體繁榮。故在評價佛教的地位時不必預設一種唯一"正確的"形態去判別其"衰落"或"復興",而可採取更為開放、包容的宗教學立場。

The Buddhist reformation was a main theme in the history of modern Chinese Buddhism. It showed how did a Buddhist community respond to the challenge of that times by involving the state, Buddhist temples, monks and laypersons. Scholarly attention has been paid on this theme, while there still is room for improvement. Firstly, previous researches preferred lives and thoughts of "eminent monks" or intellectual lay Buddhists who endorsed the reform rather than ordinary believers, which led to the confusion between reform blueprint and real effects. Secondly, the reason why Buddhist reformation failed was vague because few study applied a region-based approach to analyze different roles Buddhism played in local societies. This dissertation focuses on Buddhist temples, organizations and believers in Nanjing during the Republican period (1912-1949). It aims at local responses to Buddhist reformations launched by the government and Buddhist activists respectively. Approaches of social and local history will be applied to analyse various materials such as official documents and archives, Buddhist newspapers and periodicals, local and temple gazetteers, memoirs and collected works of contemporaries. Pictures of the Buddhist community in capital Nanjing will emerge from statistical analysis as well as case studies. / This thesis consists of four main chapters. Quantitative studies have been done in chapter 1 to portray the general picture of temples, monks and temple properties in Nanjing. Chapter 2 & 3 discusses and evaluates the reformative attempts of some officials and monks in Nanjing respectively as to make a model Buddhist community in the capital. Chapter 4 presents the practice of laymen in the city and illustrates its relationship with the reform. It can be concluded that the effects of the Buddhist reform were quite limited compared to its ambitious plan. The reason cannot be simply ascribed to the boycott of those "conservative monks". As a matter of fact, divergent opinions and interests in state and sangha made the reform campaigns exist in name only. Besides, clergy and laity were good at evading reformative pressures come from the top. They maintained those beliefs and rituals they considered valuable, such as the practice of pure land, the tradition of chanting and confession, the dharma assemble and pilgrimage and so forth. As a result, the conventional traditions in Buddhism were much more transparent than those unconventional reformative characteristics in a modern city like Nanjing. / Based on the example of Nanjing, we can shed some light on the research of modern Chinese Buddhism. First of all, Buddhism was considered as a disciplined religion in the religion/superstition dichotomy formulated by government. But the practice of monks and laypersons always went against

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