The ritual of Renwang is one of the most famous and influential Buddhist rituals. It was established in the Southern and Northern dynasties of China. During this period, the ritual is said to have been meant to place an emphasis on academic interpretation. During the ritual, the master would explain whole Benevolent Kings sūtra, while another master would play the role of debater to pose many questions to the former master. Over time, this tradition changed gradually. Based on the Dunhuang document P. 3808, we find by the latter Tang dynasty a new ritual of Renwang very different from the traditional ritual. The new ritual was more a performance than an actual religion rite. During this new ritual, the master only explained one sentence of the sūtra, and correspondingly the debater just sang a sentence without any debate and questions. After the sermon, the ritual became a hymn, and the master sang many hymns to felicitate the emperor’s birthday and praise his merits.