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印度中期中觀思想家的佛身論 -- 以月稱和清辨為中心=Theories of the Buddha Body Held by Middle Period Mādhyamikā Thinkers -- Candrakīrti and Bhāviveka
作者 釋見弘 (著)=Shih, Jien-hong (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.18
出版日期2005.07.01
頁次1 - 29
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項作者為中華佛學研究所助理研究員
關鍵詞清辨=Bhāviveka; 月稱=Candrakīrti; 佛身=Buddha-body; 受用身=saṃbhogakāya
摘要梶山雄一博士在其論文中,提及以龍樹為始的中觀學派、包含清辨、月稱和寂天的佛身說乃是法身與色身的二身說。此中的「法身」,意指寂然、超越一切概念、言語活動的真理(空性);而「色身」,意指具有肉身的歷史上的佛陀,相當於唯識學派的三身說中的「(變)化身」。他認為,這樣的二身說在解釋佛身上有其缺陷,因為作為空性的法身,到底如何能夠變現出化身呢?因此需要有「由法身所流出來」(即「法界等流」)的「受用身」(亦可名「色身」)來作為它們的的媒介。
本論文的目的,一方面在確認於月稱的《入中論釋》中,是否明白地有三身思想的呈現?進一步,更嘗試探討表面上似乎是主張二身說的清辨的著作中,是否也有三身說,或者更精確地說,是否也有相當於「受用身」一詞的觀念存在?
經過對兩人著作的相關考察後,本論文獲得如下結論:雖然在《般若燈論》和《中觀心論頌》裡,清辨未曾正式使用「受用身」這一與三身說直接關連的術語,但就思想內涵言,他的「如來身」一語,應該包括了「法身」與「受用身」兩個概念。易言之,除了在法身的細部理解上,與月稱有些許差異外,基本上清辨似乎也援用了三身說的結構。至於月稱方面,他確實運用三身的概念,來系統地描繪他的佛陀觀。此外、由於他們之後的智藏、乃至於蓮華戒等人的著作中,也都明確地述及佛的三身,因此,綜觀地來看,我們或可斷言:以清辨和月稱為主的印度中期中觀思想家,乃至其後的中觀思想家們,在佛身的觀點上,與唯識學派一致,都採取了三身說的立場。

In his articles, Prof. KAJIYAMA Yuichi refers to the theory of the Buddha-body in the Mādhyamikā school, which originates with Nāgārjuna and includes Bhāviveka, Candrakīrti, and ?āntideva. It is a double body theory, comprised of dharmakāya and rūpakāya. Here, "dharmakāya" refers to truth (emptiness), which is calm, and transcends conceptual and linguistic activity. "Rūpakāya" refers to the historical buddha, who possesses a physical body, and is equivalent to the nirmā?akāya in Yogācāra's triple body theory. He finds that a double body theory is insufficient to explain the body of the Buddha, because of the problem of how the dharmakāya of emptiness can manifest nirmā?akāyas. Therefore, there needs to be a "saṃbhogakāya emerging from the dharmakāya" (which is the dharmadhātuni?yanda) to serve as their medium.
  It is the goal of this paper first, to determine whether Candrakīrti's Madhyamakāvatāra-bhā?ya includes a clear presentation of triple body thought. Second, it explores what appears on the surface to be a double body theory in the works of Bhāviveka, but which may actually be a triple body theory. More precisely, this paper explores whether he uses an equivalent of the concept saṃbhogakāya.
  Through a study of the works by those two thinkers, I have come to the followig conclusion. In his Prajñāpradīpa and Madhyamaka-h?dāyakārika, Bhāviveka never formally uses the word saṃbhogakāya, a term associated with the triple body theory. However, in terms of the content of his thought, Bhāviveka's term "tathāgatakāya" ought to include the concepts of dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya. More simply, except for some minor differences wiht Candrakīrti in his understanding of dharmakāya, Bhāviveka generally seems to support and employ a triple body theory structure. As for Candrakīrti, he indeed applies a triple body theory in his systematic description of Buddhas. Additionally, we can conclude that thinkers in the middle period of Mādhyamikā thought (mainly Bhaaviveka and Candrakīrti), as well as thinkers after them are consistent with Yogācāra in terms of their buddha-body view: they all employ a trple body theory.
目次一、前言 3
二、月稱的佛身思想 3
(一)相關著作
(二)《入中論釋》中的佛身思想
三、清辨的佛身思想 11
(一)相關著作
(二)《中觀心論頌》及《般若燈論》中之佛身思想
四、結語 21

ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1889
建檔日期2006.12.07
更新日期2017.06.20










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