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佛教心心所與現代心理學=The Mind and Mental Concomitants in Buddhism and Modern Psychology
作者 蔡伯郎 (著)=Tsai, Po-lang (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.19
出版日期2006.07.01
頁次325 - 349
出版者中華佛學研究所=Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://www.chibs.edu.tw/publication_tw.php?id=12
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項作者為中華佛學研究所助理研究員
關鍵詞心所=Mental concomitants; 腦神經=Brain neurons; 相應=Psychology; 成實論=Tattvasiddhi; 成唯識論=Cheng weishi lun
摘要在佛教思想中,對於心識的探究,從原始佛教、部派佛教乃至到大乘佛教,一直都是一個極受關注的焦點,然而在部派佛教思想,以及大乘唯識思想中,對心識的論說卻有相當大的差異,這些差異包含:1.心體是一、是多?2.若心體是多,能否同時俱起?3.離心有無心所等問題。由於原始佛教經典中,對於心、心所的問題並無明確的界說,以致各派主張都可於原始經典中取得某種支持的詮釋,致使此一問題無法就佛教內部的經證上獲得適當的解決,以此本文乃令尋途徑,試圖以現代的認知心理學的研究理論,對此一問題進行說明。
在佛教各派思想中,說一切有部主張心識是一,離心有別心所;《成實論》所代表的經量部則是主張心體有六,然此六種心體不能同時俱起,且認為離心無別心所,所謂心所只是心的狀態的差別說明;而以護法為代表的大乘唯識學派則認為心體有八,此八種心識可同時俱起,且有離心的心所可伴隨心識生起。
而就現代心理學對於腦部認知結構的了解,以及大腦各部位對於感覺訊息的認知功能的處理來看,大腦在處理各感官的認知是同時並進的,而非是各感官以逐一序列的方式進行,腦中的神經元與神經網路就如現代巨量平行聯結的電腦,這種電腦包含了許多相互密切連結的處理單元,可以同時平行地運作訊息。以此,佛教中諸識是否能俱起的問題,答案應該是肯定的。
另外,就現代腦神經科學的研究而言,大腦中有各別負責掌管情緒以及睡眠等的組織,而所謂情緒與睡眠即佛教中所說之部份心所。在我們認知的過程中,情緒與睡眠等心理現象,與透過感官而對外界生起認知是差別運作,而可同時生起的。因此,從現代心理學的角度而言,可說是與大乘唯識學派的心識論較為相符的。

The exploration of the mind is one of the main concerns in Buddhist thought, beginning in early Buddhism, sectarian Buddhism, and in Mahāyāna Buddhism. There are many differences in the theory of mind held by the sectarian Buddhist schools as compared to that of the Mahāyāna Mind-only School. These differences include the following questions: 1. Is there one consciousness, or many? 2. If there are many consciousnesses, can they arise at the same time? 3. Are there mental concomitants outside of the mind? Because different Buddhist schools cite passages in early Buddhist texts to support their respective interpretations, and there is no clear definition of the mind and mental concomitants in early Buddhist scriptures, it is thus impossible to resolve these questions on the basis of Buddhist canonical texts. Therefore the present article is an attempt to use modern cognitive psychology in the discussion of these questions.
Among sectarian Buddhist schools, Sarvāstivāda holds that the mind is one with the consciousness and that there are mental concomitants outside of the mind. The Sautrāntikas, as represented in the Tattvasiddhi, believe that there are six consciousnesses, which cannot arise at the same time, and that there are no mental concomitants outside of the mind since so-called mental concomitants are nothing but different states of mind. According to the Mind-only School, there are eight consciousnesses, which can arise simultaneously, and mental concomitants outside of the mind can arise with the mind.
According to research in Cognitive Psychology, the cerebrum processes each type of sensory data in a different region, and is able to process different sensory data simultaneously rather than dealing with data from one sense organ at a time. The neural network in the brain is like a large-scale parallel computer, which contains numerous processing units closely connected to deal with information simultaneously. Thus, the answer to the question whether different consciousnesses arise simultaneously is affirmative.
Additionally, based on the research in contemporary Neuroscience, there are separate systems responsible for emotions and sleep in the cerebrum. Emotions and sleep are discussed as mental concomitants in Buddhism. Because emotions and sleep are functions different from the cognition arisen through sense organs responding to the external world, and they can arise at the same time. Therefore, the assertion about the mind made by the Mind-only school is consistent with the perspective of modern psychology.
目次一、前言 327
二、原始佛教與部派佛教的心所思想 329
三、瑜伽行派的心所思想 333
四、心所與現代心理學 337
五、結論 339
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數2941
建檔日期2006.12.08
更新日期2017.06.20










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