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「七滅諍法」的程序正義與配套措施=The Righteous Procedure and Complete Set of Measures of the Seven Ways of Settling Disputes in the Sangha Order
作者 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hwei (au.)
出處題名 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
卷期n.2
出版日期2005.01.01
頁次93 - 133
出版者玄奘大學宗教學研究所
出版者網址 http://ird.hcu.edu.tw/front/bin/home.phtml
出版地新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為玄奘大學宗教學研究所副教授=Hsuan Chuang University, Religion research institute, Associate Professor
關鍵詞十事利益=The benefits; 攝取於僧=Assimilation of sangha members; 六和敬=Six harmonies; 見和同解=Harmony in view; 四種諍事=Four types of disputes; 七滅諍法=Seven ways of settling disputes; 勸諫=To advise; 舉罪=To point out mistake; 發露=To admit and express; 覆藏=To cover/hide
摘要本文以「攝取於僧」為總綱,先泛論制戒目的之「十事利益」,再縮小範圍以檢視第一句義「攝取於僧」的意涵,由是而論及僧團「和合」的六大基礎——六和敬義,並特別針對其中第一和合義之「見和同解」,說明其重大意義,以及化解見諍的精神、方法與步驟。其次廣泛介紹導致僧團不能和合的四種諍事,以及令僧恢復和合的七種滅諍法。以公正平和的原則,處理大小諍事,不但可以保障個人的權益(如現前毘尼、憶念毘尼、不癡毘尼、自言治),防止個人的遁罪(如覓罪相),而且還能促進僧伽和樂清淨的理想(如多人語、如草覆地)。由於七滅諍法,以及種種與滅諍及勸諫相關的戒法,正是「攝取於僧」以令僧和合的程序法與實體法,更是促使僧團與個人得以安樂、清淨的要素,因此本文進一步申論:如何靈活運用這些滅諍法。這包括了兩點:諍事與滅諍法之對應關係,以及服從多數、尊重少數的和合精神。本文並依據戒經,一一爬梳與滅諍法相關的配套措施,以此證實:佛制對於滅諍、舉罪、勸諫等良善行為,會加以正面鼓勵;對於發諍、嫌罵、覆藏、隨舉等不良行為,則會加以嚴格制止。

目次一、前言 96
二、攝取於僧 97
(一)十事利益與六和合
(二)化解見諍的「見和」要領
三、四種諍事 102
(一)言諍
(二)覓諍
(三)犯諍
(四)事諍
四、滅諍的程序法 106
(一)現前毘尼
(二)憶念毘尼
(三)不癡毘尼
(四)自言治
(五)覓罪相
(六)多人語
(七)如草覆地
五、滅諍法之靈活運用 115
(一)諍事與滅諍法之對應關係
(二)尊重少數的滅諍精神
六、滅諍法的相關配套措施 120
七、「現前毗尼」與「展轉相諫」探微 124
八、結語 132

Abstract:
The main principle of this article is the assimilation of members in the Sangha
Order. The article starts with a brief discussion on the Ten Benefits of formulating precepts. Then, it narrows its scope into examining the meaning of the First Benefit – the assimilation of Sangha members. Extending from this, the discussion touches on the six basic criteria in promoting harmony in a Sangha order -- the meanings of Six Harmonies. To highlight its great importance, this article places special emphasis on the First Harmony -- Harmony in View. There are also discussion on the aspiration, methods and procedures in settling disputes regarding views. In addition, the article also gives a broad introduction on the four types of disputes that cause disharmony in a Sangha order, and the Seven Ways of Settling Disputes that can restore the harmony of the Sangha Order.
To handle disputes of any size with a righteous and peaceful principle, will help to ensure the right and benefit of each individual (e.g. applying the methods of:
sammukhavinaya (verdict in the presence of), sativinaya (verdict of innocence),
amulhavinaya (verdict of past insanity), patinnkarana (verdict with
acknowledgement)). This also prevents individuals from trying to flee from offence (e.g. using the method of tassapapiyyasika (formal act for specific
depravity/obstinately wrong)). Handling disputes with a righteous principle can also help to regain the peacefulness and purity of the Sangha Order. (e.g. applying the methods of yebhuyyasika (by decision of majority) or tinavattharaka (covering up (as) with grass)).
The Seven Ways of Settling Disputes, and other rules and regulations related to
settling disputes and giving advice, are substantial teachings and procedures that assimilate the Sangha member and maintain the harmony of the Sangha order. They are also essential factors in ensuring the purity and peacefulness of individual Sangha members and the Order. In addition to this, this article progresses into explaining how to apply these methods of settling disputes flexibly. This includes two points:
1) The corresponding relationship between the matters in dispute and the
methods of settling disputes;
2) The peaceful and harmony aspiration in accepting the majority and
respecting the minorities.
Based on the information in the Pratimoksa, this article tries to find out all
measures related to the ways of settling disputes. It is proved that the Buddha
positively encouraged wholesome actions such as settling disputes, pointing out
mistakes and giving advice. However, he strictly restrained unwholesome behaviour of causing disputes, grudging and reproving, hiding/covering mistakes and to accompany and agree with those who are under suspension.
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
點閱次數596
建檔日期2007.04.09
更新日期2017.12.01










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