大乘佛學「幽暗」觀的理論重建 -- 從「唯識所現」看妄心系有相唯識學對「無明」的理解=Theoretical Reconstruction of Mahayana Buddhist View on Evil: Sakara-Vijnanavada's Understanding of Ignorance (Avidya) Through the Theory of Conceptualization-Only (Vijnapti-Matra) and Semantic Manifestation of Meaning\Object (Artha-Pratibhasa)
The present thesis is a philosophical research on the doctrine of Sākāra-vijñānavāda, a branch of Yogācāra Buddhism, according to Xuanzang's Treatise on Demonstration of Consciousness-Only (Cheng Wei Shih Lun) and other related Yogācāra treatises (śāstra). Within this thesis, Sākāra-vijñānavāda's understanding of "ignorance" (avidyā) is investigated through the theory of "Conceptualization-Only" (vijñapti-mātra) and "Semantic Manifestation of Meaning\Object" (artha-pratibhāsa). Different from traditional hermeneutic model, which mainly presents Vijñānavāda as absolute idealism either in cosmological or metaphysical sense, I try to argue in my research that Vijñānavāda as a Buddhist tenet, its primary concern is existential and axiological issues, while epistemological and semantic problem is its secondary concern.
The thesis is composed of eight chapters. The Introductory Chapter deals with subject matter, main theme, structure and the methodology of the whole project. Chapter One is a description of the basic nature of modern Buddhism and the methodology of contemporary academic studies of Buddhism. The models that this chapter deals with are Engaged Buddhism and Buddhist Theology. Chapter Two is an investigation of the possible philosophical implication within Yogācāra theory of meditation. Through the glass of phenomenological reduction, I try to argue that Buddhist Meditation is not "mystic" as it seems. In fact under its religious rhetoric, theory of meditation does imply certain basic characteristics of transcendental method of philosophy. Chapter Three is an investigation of Yogacara's understanding of intentionality, namely, Transformation of Consciousness (vijñāna-parināma). The theory is an explanation on consciousness (vijñāna)'s active function in creating its intended object. In this chapter, the viewpoints of both parties involve in the hot debate of Japanese scholarship on the issue will be reviewed while J. N. Mohanty's explanation is adopted to solve Japanese scholars' weaknesses. Chapter Four is on Two Hindrances (dvi āvarana), which is composed of Afflictive Obstructions (kleśāvarana) and Obstructions to Knowledge of Objects (jñeyavarana). This chapter will be focused on the innate (sahaja) grasping of two hindrances. Chapter Five is a discussion on theory of language structure. Section I deals with Buddhist concepts on sound (śabda) in phonemics sense, syntactics (vyañjanakāya), procedures of semantic construction through name (nāmakāya) and sentence (padakāya). Section II is about the mind's mechanism in language operation, the pragmatic aspects of language according to various contexts and the relation between proposition and propositional attitude. Chapter Six is on Semantic Object (artha) and its Manifestation (pratibhasa). Section I is a review on the development of Buddhist concepts of object and the Indian debate on cognition with and without aspect (akāra). Section II is a description and explanation on the basic characteristics of semantic object (artha, ālambana) according to Cheng Wei Shih Lun. Section III is an explanation on the essential concept of Yogācāra Buddhism, namely, "conceptualization-only" (vijñapti-mātra), through the theory of Manifestation of Semantic Object (artha-pratibhāsa). Chapter Seven is on Two Hindrances that are ideologically or intellectually (parikalpita) aroused. Chapter Eight is the Conclusion Chapter. Section I is a summary of the interpretation presented here. Section II discusses the limitation of the research. Section III is a dialogue between Yogācāra Buddhism and Engaged Buddhism.