本文考察了明末來華的耶穌會傳教士之代表人物利瑪竇對佛教的批判及其對耶穌會在華傳教活動所產生的正負兩方面的影響。作者認為，利氏主要是出於策略性的考慮而展開對佛教的批判的，他對佛教的批判觸及到了佛教的一些核心教義和宗教行為，但其中有曲解，且獨斷性成分居多。此種批判一方面為一些士大夫反思和批判傳統中國文化和宗教提供了新的視角，使他們能較輕易地克服改宗的心理障礙，最終棄佛歸耶，另一方面則激起了一些佞佛的士大夫和名僧們的反擊，人為地增加了天主教在華傳播的障礙。作者主張，為盡量避免宗教間的沖突，必須遵循一些規范，展開建設性的對話和反思，以求各種宗教的和平共處。 Abstract This paper discusses about the criticism on Buddhism made by Matteo Ricci, a representative of the Jesuits who came to China in late Ming Dynasty, and its positive and negative influences on the missionary activities of the Jesuits in China. The author holds that his criticism on Buddhism mainly proceeded from strategic consideration, which touched upon some basic doctrines and religious behaviors of Buddhism, but there were some misunderstanding arbitrary elements in his criticism. On the one hand his criticism provided a new perspective for some official literati (scholar) to reflect and criticize the traditional Chinese culture and religion, and enabled them to overcome their psychological obstacles more easily so as to abandon Buddhism and convert to Christianity in the end. On the other hand, it roused strong opposition on the part of some official literati and eminent monks who favored for Buddhism and thus made it more difficult for the Jesuits them selves to disseminate Cat holism in China. The author maintains that the religious conflicts should be avoided. And for this reason, we must observe some basic norms, and carry on constructive dialogue and reflection for the peaceful coexistence of various religions.