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曇鸞的空觀思想 -- 以「十念相續」與「生而無生」為核心之探討=The Observing Emptiness of Tánluán -- A Study of "Continuity of ten recitations" and "Rebirth but Non-rebirth"
作者 陳劍鍠 (著)=Chen, Jian-huang (au.)
出處題名 世界宗教學刊=Journal of World Religions
卷期n.8
出版日期2006.12.01
頁次71 - 96
出版者南華大學宗教學研究所
出版者網址 http://mail.nhu.edu.tw/~compare/index.htm
出版地嘉義縣, 臺灣 [Chia-i hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者為國立屏東教育大學中國語文學系副教授
關鍵詞曇鸞=Tánluán; 空觀=observing emptiness; 十念相續=Community of ten recitations; 生而無生=Rebirth but Non-rebirth
摘要曇鸞十四歲於五台山削髮後,日夜不輟廣讀內外經籍,尤其喜愛研讀《中論》、《百論》、《十二門論》及《大智度論》等與大乘空觀義理相應之佛教典籍,可見曇鸞剛出家時並不是淨土信仰者,而是研究空宗的學者。他到了晚年才信仰淨土法門,從出家到接觸淨土法門之前,將近四十年的時間從事空宗思想的研究與體悟,不但繼承僧肇(384—414)的空論思想,又結合龍樹與世親的思想。本文主要以「十念相續」及「生而無生」的議題為核心,探討曇鸞如何運用空觀思想以開展淨土教學法。首先討論曇鸞闡述「十念相續」的修持方法,再由證得「十念相續」的空觀內含引申說明「生而無生」的空觀思想。「十念相續」主要是對下輩或下下品的造惡眾生所提出的教示;「生而無生」主要是智慧的體驗,是對上輩眾生所施設的教示。二者在曇鸞的教學裏是有區別的,他在《往生論註》裏說:「知生無生,當是上品生者。若下下品人,乘十念往生。」這樣的描述清楚地分辨出二者的不同;二者雖不同,卻有聯繫,可從其聯繫中檢視曇鸞教學裏所涵攝的空觀思想。

Tánluán left home to enter the Buddhist monastic system in Wutái shan when he was fourteen, and studied Buddhist and non-Buddhist scriptures and treatises diligently. He especially liked The Madhyamaka-sastra(Zhonglùn), The Sata-sastra (Bailùn), The Dvadasanikaya-sastra(Shíèr mén lùn), Mahaprajñaparamita-sastra (Dàzhìdù lùn), as well as Buddhist scriptures corresponding to the meaning of the observing emptiness (kongguan) related to mahayana. When he was newly renounced his secular life, he was not a believer of pureland, but a scholar of Kongguan School. Not until his old age when he started the pureland studies, he spent forty years in the apprehension of the essential emptiness of existence. He not only inhereted Sengzhào emptiness thoughts, but also took Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu's thought in.
This paper is a study of "Continuity of ten recitations" and "Rebirth but Non-rebirth" trying to explore how Tánluánuse kongguan to develop pureland teaching. First, the paper presents how Tánluán elucidated the meditation methods, then explains the Rebirth but Non-rebirth thought from the meaning of kongguan. The continuity of ten recitations is the guidance to direct the sentient being lower class as the awakening of the original enlightened mind. There are distinctions between the two. He said in his book review Wangsheng lùnzhù, "Knowing birth as non-birth is the higher class od sentient being. The lower class of sentient being need to make use of ten recitations to achieve rebirth." Such description clarifies the distinctions; two apart thoughts with close relations; from which relation we see the thought of emptiness in Tánluán's teaching.
目次壹、前言 72
貳、「十念相續」的空觀內涵:賦予下輩的救度 75
參、「生而無生」的空觀內涵:上輩的智慧體驗 86
肆、結語 92
ISSN1728645X (P); 1728645X (E)
點閱次數652
建檔日期2009.10.16
更新日期2017.11.07










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