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阿嵯耶觀音菩薩考=A Study of the Acuoye Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva
作者 李玉珉 (著)=Lee, Yu-min (au.)
出處題名 故宮學術季刊=The National Palace Museum Research Quarterly
卷期v.27 n.1 秋季號
出版日期2009.09
頁次1 - 72
出版者國立故宮博物院
出版者網址 https://www.npm.gov.tw/
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項作者隸屬於國立故宮博物院書畫處
關鍵詞觀音=Avalokiteśvara; 阿嵯耶觀音=Acuoye Avalokiteśvara; 南詔=Nanzhao; 大理國=Dali Kingdom; 南詔圖傳=Illustrated Tales of the Nanzhao Kingdom; 梵像卷=Scroll of Buddhist Images; 中南半島=Indochina
摘要 在中國佛教造像中,有一種造型特殊的觀音菩薩像,深受九世紀中南半島佛教藝術的影響,稱作「阿嵯耶觀音」。阿嵯耶觀音是大理地區特有的觀音信仰,其信仰的內容在〈南詔圖傳〉和〈南詔圖傳.文字卷〉描繪記述甚詳。本文首先討論〈南詔圖傳〉和〈南詔圖傳.文字卷〉的製作年代,其次探索這一信仰的發展狀況。筆者以為此一信仰的歷史悠久,可以追溯至南詔的豐祐時期(824-859)。當時南詔國勢日強,民族意識抬頭,為了要表示南詔王室的威權與統治的合法性,豐祐就在早期普門品觀音的信仰基礎上,創造出阿嵯耶觀音化為梵僧,授記蒙氏,王權天授的佛教神話。自此以後,南詔王室代代欽崇阿嵯耶觀音,直到大理國時期,仍歷久不衰,留下了為數可觀的阿嵯耶觀音造像。可惜遺憾的是,根據風格分析,目前所存的阿嵯耶觀音像,多為十二、三世紀大理國後期的造像,尚未發現南詔時期的作品。

In the history of Chinese Buddhist sculpture is a unique expression of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. Known as the “Acuoye Avalokiteśvara,” it was strongly influenced by Buddhist art of the ninth century from Indochina. The Acuoye Avalokiteśvara was specific to the Dali area, its belief system depicted and explained in detail in Illustrated Tales of the Nanzhao Kingdom and The Text to Illustrated Tales of the Nanzhao Kingdom. The first part of this study examines the dates of these two handscrolls, followed by a tracing of the development of this belief system. The author considers this belief to be quite ancient, going back to Fengyou’s reign (824-859) in the Nanzhao Kingdom. At the time, the country’s power was increasing and national consciousness becoming more noticeable. Therefore, in order to express the authority and legal dominion of the Nanzhao ruling clan, Fengyou created the notion that the Acuoye Avalokiteśvara was reincarnated as an Indian monk based on an early notion of Avalokiteśvara in the Chapter on the Universal Gateway. The monk then conveyed authority to the Meng clan, thus becoming part of the mythology behind the mandate of heaven for their rule. Each generation of the ruling Nanzhao clan thereafter, and including the Dali Kingdom, venerated the Acuoye Avalokiteśvara. This belief, which continued for centuries, led to the production of a large number of Acuoye Avalokiteśvara sculptures. Unfortunately, stylistic analysis indicates that most of these surviving sculptures date from the latter part of the Dali Kingdom in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with none as yet discovered from the Nanzhao Kingdom.
目次一、前言 2
二、〈南詔圖傳〉和〈南詔圖傳.文字卷〉6
(一) 基本資料 7
(二) 製作年代 17
三、阿嵯耶觀音信仰 20
四、阿嵯耶觀音菩薩像 31
(一) 風格源流 33
(二) 風格類型 35
五、小結 39
引用書目 42
ISSN10119094 (P)
研究時代大理國
研究地點雲南(大理崇聖寺,劍川石鐘山)
點閱次數1201
建檔日期2009.12.21
更新日期2019.08.13










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