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李卓吾的生平與佛教思想
作者 江燦騰 (著)=Jiang, Cian-teng (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.2
出版日期1988.10
頁次267 - 323
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
關鍵詞李卓吾; 狂禪; 明代佛教
摘要李卓吾的一生,和佛教的關係,非常密切,可以說,最
切近他的生活經驗,反映了他的心理變化和思想發展的過程
. 過去,學者對李卓吾的評價,好壞往往趨於兩個極端,卻
未能就其生平和佛教思想的互動關係,作系統的精密分析,
以求得其內在的真相. 因此,不論是批評者,或讚美者,都
僅是捕捉了李卓吾的生平和思想複雜關係的一面而已. 在本
研究裡,則扣緊李卓吾的求道生涯,以接觸佛教為線索,而
展開其個人思想發展歷程. 換句話說,佛教思想被視為李卓
吾整個生活和思想的核心部份,然後再涉及其個人的性情,
家庭的背景,交往的師友和社會環境的背景等,使其彼此有
密切關聯的統一性,而呈現完整的李氏思想風貌. 在論文的
結構上,除前言和結論外,計分七個部份:一. 討論李氏早
年生活與佛教的關係; 二. 為分析其泰州淵源和佛教互相融
通的情形; 三. 是介紹其佛學著作的種類; 四. 探明李氏的
禪學思想為如來藏系; 五. 確定李氏的淨土思想,是禪宗立
場的自力解脫淨土; 六. 為有系統的全面分析李氏的「狂禪
」問題,及其所以招致批評的各項可能原因; 七. 則從當
時佛教高僧對李氏的批評,看其與純正佛教徒異同處. 研
究結果發現:李氏早年的親人連續死亡,和外在環境的艱困
遭遇,使其萌生退隱和求道的心理. 因接觸佛教的《金剛經
》,而使他的思想有了突破性的啟發; 再由禪思進路而會通
了泰州王學; 同時,淨土思想,也在其生涯中佔一席之地.
但禪一直是其思想重心,卻因僧行不謹; 終於導致他的牢
災和死亡!

His whole life,Li Juo-wu had a very strong
connection with Buddhism. One could say that his
life experience was most closely related to this
relationship which was reflected in his changing
mentality and intellectual development. When
scholars in the past judged Li,they tended to
positive or negative extremes but were unable to get
the real picture as they failed to analyze
systematically and in detail the interrelation
between Li's life and Buddhist thought. Thus critics
and admirers alike would only grasp one side of the
complicated relationship between Li's life and
thought.

Focusing on Li's religious life,the present
paper follows the lead of his contacts with Buddhism
and shows the development of his personal thought.
In other words, Buddhism is taken as the centre of
Li's whole life and thought. His personal character,
family background,teachers, friends, and social
environment and also taken into conisderation in
order to present Li's thought in entirety.

Apart from the preface and conclusion,the
present paper is divided into seven parts, the first
one discussing Li's early years and their
relationship with Buddhism,the second one analyzing
his connection with Wang Geng's teaching and the way
he blended is with Buddhism,the third one
introducing the different Buddhist works he
authored,the fourth one making clear that Li's
Ch'an thought belonged to the Tathagatagarbha
tradition,the fifth one ascertaining that Li's Pure
Land ideas belonged to the pure land of liberation
through one's own power advocated by the Ch'an
School,the sixth one providing a systematic and
complete analysis of Li's problematic "crazy Ch'an"
and all possible causes for the criticism he drew
for it,and the seventh one observing the
differences between Li and pure Buddhists through
the criticism of contemporary eminent monks.

It was discovered that Li's relatives passed
away one after the other in his youth, and that he
lived in a very difficult environment. Due to these
conditions his mind turned towards the idea of
retreat and search for religious truth. His
encounter with the Diamond Sutra lead to an
intellectual breakthrough. He furthermore arrived at
a synthesis with Wang Geng's thought Ch'an and,at
the same time,Pure Land concepts played also a role
in his life. Ch'an,however,was always the center
of his thoughts, yet his careless actions as a monk
eventually lead to his incarceration and death.
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1060
建檔日期1998.07.22
更新日期2017.06.15










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