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Zen and Western Psychotherapy: Nirvanic Transcendence and Samsaric Fixation=禪與西方精神治療 -- 涅槃超脫與生死固執
作者 Wawrytko, Sandra A. (著)=華珊嘉 (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.4
出版日期1991.07
頁次451 - 495
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
關鍵詞禪; 精神治療; 涅槃; 死亡; 人性論
摘要Much has been said about the relationship between Buddhism and Western psychotherapy. I argue that both the ends and the means of Buddhist practice far exceed the limitations of Western psychotherapy in its dominant forms. This claim is substantiated by examining the underlying views of human nature in the broader context of cosmic Nature, as these reflect the assumed nature of the therapeutic task. Special attention is given to the universal human encounter with death as the ultimate manifestation of dukkha. My conclusions may be summarized as follows:
1)Western psychotherapy, rooted in ancient Greek assumptions and represented by strains as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Abraham Maslow, essentially views human nature as internally weak and thus largely controlled by "objective" external forces. Consequently, it conceives of its task in terms of teaching patients to cope with existing conditions, that is, how to tread water in the samsaric sea. Its response to death, as expressed in Freud's later theory of the Death Instinct, is one of resignation as demanded by the scientifically validated fact of natural necessity.

2) One of the few variations on this therapeutic scheme, tending toward Buddhism in general and Zen in particular, is to be found in Viktor E. Frankl's Logotherapy. As revealed in Frankl's dimensional ontology, he is more sanguine about human prospects and our ability to achieve self-transcendence. Many parallels are to be found between logotherapeutic techniques and those of Zen, including glimmerings of enlightenmental insight into the key role of suffering. Yet, Frankl is never fully able to liberate either himself or Logotherapy from Samsāra, as reflected in his view of death as a necessary guarantor of life's meanings.

3)Only Zen is able to transcend both self (ego) and Samsāra, by means of the resources inherent in Original Nature. Its attitude of detachment toward death, without succumbing to denial, epitomizes its overarching efficacy. Much has been said about the relationship between Buddhism in general and Western psychotherapy. This is especially true in terms of various explorations of the "therapeutic" potential inherent in Zen Buddhism. In part, Buddhist tradition would seem to corroborate the comparison, as seen in the metaphor of Buddhism as a medicine or therapy dispensed by the enlightened physician,theBuddha,to cure our samsaric suffering.

Despite these apparent similarities, this discussion focuses on the need for caution in the pursuit of comparisons, for an uncritical association of Buddhism with existing forms of psychotherapy as practiced in the West carries the danger of reductionism, whereby both disciplines are compromised. When Buddhism is reduced to being nothing more than another form of psychotherapy, with Sakyamuni Buddha himself identified as a proto-therapist, a valuable resource is lost for the West. In being so regarded, Western thinkers need not delve deeply to reveal Buddhism's uniqueness, but remain content with superficial similarities. This leads to such absurdities as the assumption that psychedelic delic drugs can be a substitute for the self-discipline of meditational practice, in that they induce the same ecstatic state and represent a kind of expressway to enlightenment, or that meditation is primarily of interest as a means of stress reduction. Even those who more modestly suggest that drugs be used merely as a motivation for undertaking the arduous path of practice, by granting a glimpse of things to come, fail to heed Buddhism's fundamental precept against intoxicants.

In the following I argue that both the ends and the means of Buddhist practice far exceed the limitations of Western psychotherapy in its dominant forms. This claim is substantiated by examining the underlying views of human nature in the broader context of cosmic Nature, as these reflect the assumed nature of the therapeutic task. Special attention is given to the univer
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1108
建檔日期1998.07.22
更新日期2017.06.15










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