禪宗=Zen Buddhism=Zazen Buddhism; Japan--religion--1600-1868; Buddhist sects; Buddhism--Japan
The transformation of Buddhism during the Tokugawa period has not been sufficiently explored by modern scholars. In this essay I will attempt to sketch an overall view of Tokugawa-period sectarian consciousness as expressed in the relations between the various obediences of what is popularly called “the Zen sect, ” namely the Soto, Rinzai, and Obaku schools. The question of lineage and identity is of central importance here, as this issue is intimately connected with sectarian developments during the Tokugawa period, and thus with the way in which the Japanese sects view themselves today. By examining certain figures and their writings, I will focus on the extent to which Buddhist sectarianism grew stronger during the Tokugawa period.