This book is a revised and slightly expanded version of a doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Oxford in September 1970. The material on which the thesis was based was collected during the preceding five and a half years at the following libraries and archives: the Sri Lanka National Archives, the Colombo Museum Library, the University of Sri Lanka Library at Peradeniya, the Bodleian group of libraries in Oxford, the Reading Room of the British Museum, and the Public Record Office in London. I am deeply grateful to the staffs of these institutions for their ready and courteous assistance.
Spelling and Transliteration vii Key t o Abbreviations ix Preface xi
Introduction 1 I. The Background 11 i. Buddhism: Its Transformation and Establishment in Ceylon, 11 ii. The Impact of the Portuguese and Dutch Missionary Efforts, 28 iii. Buddhism in the Kandyan Kingdom, 49
Part One. Schisms within the Order and the Rise of New Monastic Fraternities II. The First Phase: U p t o 1815 73 i. The Nature of the Religious Establishment, 73 ii. Rebellion in the Kandyan Kingdom, 74 iii. Kandyan versus Low-country Monks, 82 iv. Low-caste Protest against the Establishment and the Rise of the Amarapura Fraternity, 87 v. The Sociological Significance of the Amarapura Fraternity, 100 III. Authority and Dissent in the Siyam Fraternity, 1815-1865 106 i. The Disestablishment of Buddhism, 106 ii. Kandyan versus Low-country Monks—The Second Phase: The Rise of the Kalyäni Fraternity, 128 iii. The Amarapura Fraternity in the Kandyan Provinces, 139 vi CONTENTS IV. The Segmentation of the Amarapura Fraternity, 1815-1865 144 i. The Problem of Cohesion in the Amarapura Fraternity, 144 ii. Karave and Durave Monks versus Salagama Monks: The Emergence of the Dhammarakkhitavamsa and the Kalyanivamsa Fraternities, 147 iii. Salagama Monks: Division into Mulavamsa and Saddhammavamsa Fraternities, 151 iv. The Ramanna Fraternity: Its Origin and Its Ideals, 161 V. Decline or Revival? 173 i. Prophecies of Doom, 173 ii. The Shift of the Religious Centre, 175
Part Two. Protestant Buddhism VI. Buddhism Versus Christianity: Beginnings of Buddhist Protest 191 i. The Challenge: Christian Missions in Ceylon, 1800-1860, 191 ii. The Buddhist Response, 1800-1860, 205 iii. The Buddhist Response, 1860-1880, 213 VII. Protest Consolidated 232 i. Crisis in the Buddhist Response to Christian Missionary Activity, 232 ii. Lay Participation before 1880, 237 iii. Lay Participation after 1880: The Buddhist Theosophical Society, 242
Conclusion 256 Appendix I. Chronological Table, 1750-1900 263 Appendix II. Pupillary Succession of Vàlivita Saranamkara in the Low Country 266 Bibliography 269 Index 285