One of the most remarkable archaeological findings in the eraly 20th century is the treasure of Khara Khoto. It contains over 11000 pieces of Tangut art work within which a good number of Amitabha paintings categorized into two groups based upon their themes: (1) the Welcoming Descent of Amitabha (Ch. chieh-ying), and (2) the Paradise of Amitabha are found. These paintings not only shed lights on our understanding of the Pure Land belief and its art in the Xixia kingdom (1031-1227) but also offer insights into the complexity of Tangut culture. This paper focuses on the stylistic and iconographic study of these Xixia Amitabha paintings in order to establish the sources of these Xixia Amitabha paintings and point out Tangut characteristics which are distinguished these paintings from their Chinese and Tibetan prototypes. In addition, this article discusses the functions of these paintings and explores the relationship between these Buddhist paintings and religious practice as well. The Xixia kingdom was locted between Song China and Tibet, in consequence, its culture was strongly influenced by Chinese and Tibetan traditions. According to stylistic analyses, the Amitabha paintings from Khara Khoto are closely related to Song Buddhist paintings. The iconography of the Khara Khoto chieh-ying paintings was clearly derived from the Northern Song prototype while that of the paintings of the Paradise of Amitabha was stemmed from the Southern Song model. In the meanwhile, Tibetan influences on these Amitabha works are also easily discerned. On the basis of the study of these Amitabha paintings, it is quite evident that Chinese and Tibetan elements have been integrated together to create a specifically Tangut iterpretation. As the Amitabha cult and ists art developed in the Tangut state, certain innovative iconographic features have also been created. In terms of the functions of these Khara Khoto Amitabha paintings, because most of these Amitabha paintings bear the portrait/portraits of the deceased or donoers, they were likely painted for personal devotion and meditation rather than for the purblic worship or the general concept of salvation.