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從數息觀論中國佛教早期禪法=The Meditation Methods of Early Chinese Buddhism:From the Perspective of Anapanasati
作者 陳英善 (著)=Cheng, Ying-shan (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.13.1
出版日期2000.05
頁次323 - 348
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項n.13.1為第13期卷上‧中文篇
關鍵詞世間禪=Mundane Dhyana; 出世間禪=Supramundane Dhyana; 菩薩不共禪=Bodhisattva's Uncommon Dhyana; 數息觀=Anapanasati
摘要安那般那法門,乃傳統主要的禪法之一. 此法門不僅是共
世間的有漏禪門,且是共出世間的無漏禪門,甚至可說是
菩薩之不共禪門. 有關此種見解,蘊含於諸禪典籍中,由
於所傳譯的禪典中,其禪法偏重於世間禪門和出世間禪門
來論述,故一般大多視安那般那為世間禪門及出世間禪門.
東漢末年安世高所傳譯的禪經如此; 乃至西晉竺法護所譯
的《修行道地經》,東晉鳩摩羅什及佛陀跋陀羅等所傳譯諸
禪經,莫不皆如此. 甚至陳,隋時期,天台智者所撰的
《釋禪波羅蜜次第法門》中,吾人亦可窺知其對安那般那
法門的看法,基本上是秉承著傳統佛教的見解,將之置於
世間禪門與出世間禪門中. 因此,吾人可看出自東漢末
以來,所傳譯的經典中,大多視安那般那為世間禪門及出
世間禪門,以此作為菩薩行者於次第道修學上的共世間禪
及共出世間禪. 至於直接以菩薩不共禪法來闡述之,可說
是隱而不顯. 雖言隱而不顯,若仔細探求之,亦可窺知其
中所蘊藏之涵義.

本文所論述的中國佛教早期禪法,所探索的範圍,自安世
高所傳譯禪經至天台智者的禪觀. 對數息觀中的六門
(數,隨,止,觀,還,淨) 之涵義,基本上,依菩薩修
學禪波羅蜜的歷程來探討,分為兩方面:一為菩薩次第行
上的數息觀; 一為菩薩非次第行上的數息觀. 前者又分為
世間禪之數息觀,共出世間禪之數息觀,不共禪之數息觀
等三部份. 後者則直就圓頓止觀來論述. 希望藉此種種
層面之探討,以呈現數息觀種種之面貌,亦顯示中國佛教
禪法中的多樣性.

Summary
Anapanasati is one of the traditional major meditations
methods. This technique is common to not only other
mundane conditioned dhyanas but also other supramundane
unconditioned dhyanas, even the uncommon bodhisattve
dhyana. This viewpoint consists in various dhyana
texts. Since the meditation methods in translated
Chinese dhyana texts emphasize the mundane and
supramundane dhyanas, most people consider anapanasati
as mundane and supramundane dhyanas. The dhyana
sutras translated by An Shigao in late years of
Eastern Han Dynasty are the case. Even The Sutra of
Stages on the path of Practice translated by Dharmaraksa
in Western Jin Dynasty,and other dhyana sutras
translated by Kumarajiva and Buddhabhadra in Eastern
Jin Dynasty are also the case. Even On the Stages of
Dhyana Parami written by Master Zhiyi during the Chen
and Sui Dynasties also classifies the anapanasati
technique as the mundane and supramundane dhyanas.
Therefore,we can find that most of the sutras
translated since the late years of Eastern Han
Dynasty treat anapanasati technique as mundane and
supramundane dhyanas, and take them as the mundane
and supramundane dhyanas common to the practice of
the gradual path of a bodhisattva. It is very rare
to treat anapanasati technique as the uncommon
dhyana of bodhisattva path. However,we can still
glimpse the hidden implication.

The raw materials of this study range from the
dhyana sutras translated by An Shigao to the meditation
methods advocated by Master Zhiyi of Tiantai School.
The meaning of the six wonderful doors of anapanasati
(i.e. counting the breath, following the breath,
tranquility,visualization,returning,and
purification) is discussed from two perspectives
according to the process of a bodhisattva's practice
of dhyana parami:

1. The bodhisattva's gradual practice of anapanasati
consists of three parts:The common mundane dhyana
of anapanasati,the common supramundane dhyana of
anapanasati,and the uncommon dhyana of anapanasati.

2. The bodhisattva's non-gradual practice of
anapanasati,i.e. the perfect and spontaneous
tranquility and insight meditation.

The paper hopes to present the various aspects of
anapanasati and the variety of meditation methods
in Chinese Buddhism.

目次一. 前言
二. 就菩薩道之次第行而論
(一)世間禪門之數息觀
(二)出世間禪門之數息觀
(三)出世間上上禪門之數息觀
三. 就菩薩道之非次第行而論
四. 結論
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數697
建檔日期2000.07.22
更新日期2017.06.20










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