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Buddha's Love and Human Love=佛陀之愛與人類之愛
作者 Ichimura, Shohei (著)=市村承秉 (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.13.2
出版日期2000.05
頁次195 - 254
出版者中華佛學研究所=Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://www.chibs.edu.tw/publication_tw.php?id=12
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項n.13.2為第13期卷下‧英文篇
關鍵詞Buddha's Love=佛陀之愛; Kuan-yin=觀音
摘要Kuan-yin Bodhisattva is one of the most enduring members of the Buddhist Pantheon. Across boundaries
of land and ocean,he has continued to be the focus of cultic devotion among Buddhists for two millennia,and is perhaps second only to Sakyamuni Buddha in popularity. Ever since the invocation in ancient India of his name,Avalokitasvara in Sanskrit in the Samanta-mukha Section of the Lotus Sutra, he has been known in the Mahayana branch of Buddhism as the embodiment of the supreme virtue of love and compassion. Traces of belief in and worship of thisBodhisattva are found in all regions where Mahayana Buddhism once spread,and are a living practice in East Asian countries today,despite contemporary political,social and economic changes. Kumarajiva
(C.E. 406) and Hsuan-tsang (between 645-664)respectively rendered the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara
or Avalokitesvara in Chinese as kuan-shih-yin (or in shortened form as kuan-yin) and Kuan-tzu-tsai.
While the virtue of love and compassion continued to be praised,hypostatized and depicted in human
form for countless ages, the iconographic image of this Bodhisattva rapidly multiplied into varied
forms in India through assimilation of Hindu deities.In China, during the latter half of the first
millennium,his standard image radically changed from that of an austere male figure to that of an
effeminate figure with a maiden-like smile and refined celestial womanhood. Regarding their
initial encounter with Kuan-yin,some writers in the West wrote of being "profoundly affected" by
the artistic representation of the figure and its enchanting spell.The popularity of the cult of Kuan-yin Bodhisattva is due primarily to the dual virtues that Mahayana Buddhism ascribed to the ideal of this Bodhisattva.Love and compassion constituted his practical virtue,while the insight of Sunyata was his theoretical virtue. The ideal of Kuan-yin Bodhisattva fared well among Mahayana Buddhist followers by attracting their belief and devotion,whether in high or low culture and South or East Asia. The said two virtues, interdependent like the two wheels of a cart,represent the two expedient means or criteria (upaya-kausalya) essential to any Bodhisattva's career. What makes the Bodhisattva's dual virtues unique among all human systems of thought is the very insight of Sunyata (emptiness),the principle that whatever is devoid of its own nature (nihsvabhava).

In this paper,I am concerned with the subject of Kuan-yin Bodhisattva's virtue as invariably
expressed in "the vow of self-abnegation for love and compassion toward all sentient beings, especially those in suffering and distress." Because of his vow not to cross to Nirvana, despite his full capacity to do so,Kuan-yin is said to hold mid-stream until all other beings have been
successfully rescued and have crossed to the yonder shore. I think that Kuan-yin's virtue as the
embodiment of Buddhist love and compassion is the bridge that links human virtue to that of the
enlightened and perfected (Buddhas, Tathagatas).This paper has three main points:(1) distinguishing
love and compassion of Buddhas from that of humans in terms of non-duality between the agent of love and the recipient; (2) analyzing this principle in reference to the three motivational contexts of love and compassion; (3) evaluating Buddhist love and compassion in terms of perfect communication based on the insight of Sunyata.

提要:
觀音菩薩是佛教諸聖裡最重要的人物之一. 祂超越海陸限制,兩千年來一直是佛教徒崇拜供養的焦點,普及的程度
也許僅次於釋迦牟尼佛. 從古老印度以來,祂在《法華經觀世音菩薩普門品》的名字「阿婆盧吉低舍婆羅」
(Avalokitasvara)就一直被稱誦著,在大乘佛教裡祂一直被視作是大慈與大悲的化身. 只要有大乘佛教的地方,就
有信仰與崇拜祂的蹤跡,一直到現在,雖歷經宗教,社會與經濟的變遷,祂仍然是東亞地方實修的對象. 鳩摩羅
什(約西元406年)與玄奘(645~664)分別將Avalokitasvara或Avalokitesvara譯成「觀世音」(簡稱「觀音」)與「觀自
在」. 長期以來,慈悲的德行就一直持續被讚誦與具象化,終而被描繪成人形,觀音菩薩的圖像隨模傲印度神祇而
迅速產生許多變化. 在中國,西元六世紀以後,祂的標準形相從威嚴的男性特徵,徹底轉變為溫柔的模樣:有著淑
女一樣的笑容及優雅的天女形相. 有些西方的作者回顧他們第一次接觸觀音圖像時,均被那藝術形相的特徵與迷
人的魅力「深深感動」.

觀音菩薩信仰的普及性主是奠基在大乘菩薩的兩種德行上:慈悲是它的實修面,空的洞見則是它
目次I. Love and Compassion in the Four Contemplative Disciplines
II. Three Motivational Contexts of Buddhist Love and Compassion
III. The Difference of Buddha and Bodhisattva Regarding Love and Compassion
IV. The Buddhist Cult of Kuan-yin Bodhisattva and Human Cultures
V. Kuan-yin Bodhisattva in the 25th Chapter of the Lotus Sutra
VI. Kuan-yin Bodhisattva and the Prajna Heart Sutra
VII. Kuan-yin's Love and compassion Based on the Insight of Sunyata
VIII. Conclusion




ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1237
建檔日期2000.07.22
更新日期2017.06.20










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