Humanistic Buddhism; Humanism; Theravada Buddhism; Sri Lankan Buddhism; The Buddha; The Teachings of the Buddha; Monastics and Laity; Guruge, Ananda W. P.
The paper begins with an examination of the different definitions of humanism. Humanism primarily consists of a concern with interests and ideals of human beings, a way of perfection of human personality, a philosophical attitude which places the human and human values above all others, and a pragmatic system (e.g. that of F. C. S. Schiller and William James) which discounts abstract theorizing and concentrates on the knowable and the doable. Early Buddhism, by which is meant the teachings of the Buddha as found in the Pali Canon and the Agama Sutras, is distinguished from other traditions. The paper clarifies the error of equating Early Buddhism with the so-called Theravada Tradition of South and Southeast Asia. Historically, the independent Theravada Tradition with whatever specificity it had in doctrines came to an end when the three Buddhist schools (Mahavihara, Abhayagiri and Jetavana) of Sri Lanka were unified in the twelfth century. What developed since then and spread to South and Southeast Asia is an amalgam of all Buddhist traditions with the Pali Canon and its commentaries as the scriptures. With the reform measures in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the land of modern Buddhism prevalent as "Theravada" is flexible, tolerant and reinforced by modernizing influence of Western Christian values. The paper analyses references to the Buddha's own autobiographical statements and other data in the Pali Canon and Commentaries and shows that the Buddha stood as a man before human beings to demonstrate how they could develop themselves by their own effort and reach the end of suffering. This final goal of perfection is within the reach of every human being. Thus Buddhism is a way of perfection of human personality. It is also shown how the Buddha had not confined his teachings purely to his spiritual Path of Liberation but had dealt with matters of day-to-day interest in this life. Listed with ample evidence from scripture are the Buddha's views on the equality of humanity, the sanctity to human life, and the ethical principles governing lay life. The Buddha's position on contemporary social issues is discussed with reference to the equality of women in society, the place of mother and wife in family, poverty, youth problems, money and economic success, and government. Dealt with in great detail are interpersonal relations between parents and children, teacher and pupil, wife and husband, friends, and spiritual teacher and disciple. These principles and values are conveyed through a rich and varied narrative literature. They also find representation in Buddhist art, which has been utilized as an aid to teaching ethical values. The paper concludes by highlighting how the humanistic elements of Early Buddhism are preserved and further propagated in modern Buddhism of South and Southeast Asia. It is underscored that the emphasis on merit making has increased the attention given to charity, social and public services and comunity development. Specially stressed in the Conclusion are the prevalence of lay participation in Vipassana Meditation and the efforts made for the re-establishment of Bhikkhuni Order in Southern Buddhism.
本文將從不同的人道主義定義著手，人道主義首先著眼於人類的利益與理想、著眼於人格的完善、著眼於一種把人類和人文價值高於一切的哲學觀念、以及撇開抽象理論專注在博學與實修之士的務實的態度(參考F. C. S. Schiller and William James的例子)。原始佛教是指佛教巴利文經典與阿含經中所記載的佛陀教義，本文將闡明一般人把原始佛教與南亞和東南亞所盛行的南傳佛教混為一談的原因。從歷史上來看，南傳佛教有其獨立傳統，其教義具有特定的性質。當斯里蘭卡的三支佛教教派(大寺派：Mahavihara， 無畏山寺派：Abhayagiri 和祇多林寺派Jetavana)於十二世紀融合時，南傳佛教遂告結束，從此發展並傳播至南亞與東南亞的佛教包括所有的以巴利文大藏經和論疏文獻的一切佛教傳統，據十八九世紀改革之風，現代所盛行的南傳佛教則是具有靈活性、寬容性並隨西方基督教價值觀的影響而得到加強。 本文參考釋尊個人自傳式的陳述，及巴利文經典與其論注，說明釋尊以人身現示在世人面前，教化眾生如何以自身的努力來開發自我，以達到離苦的境地；而這種究竟完善的目標是人人可成就的。 同時也顯現出，釋尊之教義並未只局限在個人精神的解脫之道上，並且也顧及到日常生活的事宜，佛經中有諸多例證指出釋尊強調人類的平等性、人命的神聖以及在家居士所應注意的道德規範。而就現代的社會問題而言，教義中也提到女性在社會應享有的平等對待、母親與妻子在家中的地位、貧窮、青少年問題、如何管理金錢與經濟、以及政府問題。也涉獵到人於人的相互關係問題：一系列親子、師生、夫妻、朋友、精神導師與學生等等，這些教義的原則與價值理念都記載在諸多的經典文著中，同時也展現在佛教的藝術創作上。 結論將指出原始佛教中所提及的三個人文主義要素，進一步提出現代佛教在南亞及東南亞的情形，其中特別
ABSTRACT 85 1. Introduction 86 2. Definition of Humanism and Early Buddhism 86 a. What is Humanism? b. Early Buddhism 3. What exactly is Theravada Tradition? 88 a. Early Usage of the Term 'Theravada' b. Diversity of Sri Lankan Buddhism c. Unification of Schools or Sects of Buddhism in the Twelfth Century d. "Protestant Buddhism" of the Twentieth Century e. Hallmarks of Theravada Tradition 4. The Buddha the Man 93 a. Autobiographical Snippets b. Man (Purisa) to Superman (Mahapurisa) to Supra-mundane (Lokottara) Being 5. Human Concerns in the Teachings of the Buddha 98 a. Perfection of Human Personality b. Monastics and Laity c. Teachings for the Laity 6. The Buddha's Position on Social Issues 103 a. Gender Issues b. Poverty and Violence c. Youth Problems d. Money e. Government f. Interpersonal Relations g. Exemplary Lives and Exemplars from Narrative Literature and Art 7. From Early Buddhism to the "Theravada" Tradition of Modern Times 111 a. Elements of Early Buddhism in Doctrines and Practices b. Impact of Modern Influences 8. Conclusion 117 REFERENCES 120