Humanistic Elements in Early Buddhism and the "Theravada Tradition"=原始佛教與南傳佛教中的人道觀
作者 Guruge, Ananda W. P.
出處題名 Hsi Lai Journal of Humanistic Buddhism=西來人間佛教學報
頁次85 - 122
出版者International Academy of Buddhism, University of the West
出版者網址 http://www.uwest.edu/site/
出版地Rosemead, CA, US [柔似蜜, 加利福尼亞州, 美國]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
附註項With abstracts in English and Chinese
關鍵詞Humanistic Buddhism; Humanism; Theravada Buddhism; Sri Lankan Buddhism; The Buddha; The Teachings of the Buddha; Monastics and Laity; Guruge, Ananda W. P.
摘要 The paper begins with an examination of the different definitions of humanism. Humanism primarily consists of a concern with interests and ideals of human beings, a way of perfection of human personality, a philosophical attitude which places the human and human values above all others, and a pragmatic system (e.g. that of F. C. S. Schiller and William James) which discounts abstract theorizing and concentrates on the knowable and the doable. Early Buddhism, by which is meant the teachings of the Buddha as found in the Pali Canon and the Agama Sutras, is distinguished from other traditions. The paper clarifies the error of equating Early Buddhism with the so-called Theravada Tradition of South and Southeast Asia. Historically, the independent Theravada Tradition with whatever specificity it had in doctrines came to an end when the three Buddhist schools (Mahavihara, Abhayagiri and Jetavana) of Sri Lanka were unified in the twelfth century. What developed since then and spread to South and Southeast Asia is an amalgam of all Buddhist traditions with the Pali Canon and its commentaries as the scriptures. With the reform measures in the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries, the land of modern Buddhism prevalent as "Theravada" is flexible, tolerant and reinforced by modernizing influence of Western Christian values.
The paper analyses references to the Buddha's own autobiographical statements and other data in the Pali Canon and Commentaries and shows that the Buddha stood as a man before human beings to demonstrate how they could develop themselves by their own effort and reach the end of suffering. This final goal of perfection is within the reach of every human being. Thus Buddhism is a way of perfection of human personality.
It is also shown how the Buddha had not confined his teachings purely to his spiritual Path of Liberation but had dealt with matters of day-to-day interest in this life. Listed with ample evidence from scripture are the Buddha's views on the equality of humanity, the sanctity to human life, and the ethical principles governing lay life. The Buddha's position on contemporary social issues is discussed with reference to the equality of women in society, the place of mother and wife in family, poverty, youth problems, money and economic success, and government. Dealt with in great detail are interpersonal relations between parents and children, teacher and pupil, wife and husband, friends, and spiritual teacher and disciple. These principles and values are conveyed through a rich and varied narrative literature. They also find representation in Buddhist art, which has been utilized as an aid to teaching ethical values.
The paper concludes by highlighting how the humanistic elements of Early Buddhism are preserved and further propagated in modern Buddhism of South and Southeast Asia. It is underscored that the emphasis on merit making has increased the attention given to charity, social and public services and comunity development. Specially stressed in the Conclusion are the prevalence of lay participation in Vipassana Meditation and the efforts made for the re-establishment of Bhikkhuni Order in Southern Buddhism.

本文將從不同的人道主義定義著手,人道主義首先著眼於人類的利益與理想、著眼於人格的完善、著眼於一種把人類和人文價值高於一切的哲學觀念、以及撇開抽象理論專注在博學與實修之士的務實的態度(參考F. C. S. Schiller and William James的例子)。原始佛教是指佛教巴利文經典與阿含經中所記載的佛陀教義,本文將闡明一般人把原始佛教與南亞和東南亞所盛行的南傳佛教混為一談的原因。從歷史上來看,南傳佛教有其獨立傳統,其教義具有特定的性質。當斯里蘭卡的三支佛教教派(大寺派:Mahavihara, 無畏山寺派:Abhayagiri 和祇多林寺派Jetavana)於十二世紀融合時,南傳佛教遂告結束,從此發展並傳播至南亞與東南亞的佛教包括所有的以巴利文大藏經和論疏文獻的一切佛教傳統,據十八九世紀改革之風,現代所盛行的南傳佛教則是具有靈活性、寬容性並隨西方基督教價值觀的影響而得到加強。
1. Introduction 86
2. Definition of Humanism and Early Buddhism 86
a. What is Humanism?
b. Early Buddhism
3. What exactly is Theravada Tradition? 88
a. Early Usage of the Term 'Theravada'
b. Diversity of Sri Lankan Buddhism
c. Unification of Schools or Sects of Buddhism in the Twelfth Century
d. "Protestant Buddhism" of the Twentieth Century
e. Hallmarks of Theravada Tradition
4. The Buddha the Man 93
a. Autobiographical Snippets
b. Man (Purisa) to Superman (Mahapurisa) to Supra-mundane (Lokottara) Being
5. Human Concerns in the Teachings of the Buddha 98
a. Perfection of Human Personality
b. Monastics and Laity
c. Teachings for the Laity
6. The Buddha's Position on Social Issues 103
a. Gender Issues
b. Poverty and Violence
c. Youth Problems
d. Money
e. Government
f. Interpersonal Relations
g. Exemplary Lives and Exemplars from Narrative Literature and Art
7. From Early Buddhism to the "Theravada" Tradition of Modern Times 111
a. Elements of Early Buddhism in Doctrines and Practices
b. Impact of Modern Influences
8. Conclusion 117
ISSN15304108 (P)

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