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十世紀末的日本天台淨土組織=Japanese Tendai Pure Land Organizations in the Late Tenth Century
作者 葛羅納 (著)=Groner, Paul (au.)
出處題名 中華國際佛學會議實錄(第3屆):人間淨土與現代社會: = The Record of Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism(3rd): The "Earthly" Pure Land and Contemporary Society
出版日期1998.02
頁次114
出版者法鼓文化出版社=Dharma Drum Culture
出版者網址 http://www.ddc.com.tw
出版地臺灣 [Taiwan]
資料類型會議論文=Proceeding Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項中英文提要;
中文論文提要:頁114.
英文論文提要:pp.184-185.
關鍵詞勸學會; 念佛; 法華經; 二十五三昧會; 葛羅納; Kangaku-e; Lotus Sutra; Nijugo Zanmai-e; Groner, Paul
摘要本次會議的主題之一是淨土行的現代重要性. 不過,西方人士對傳統東亞淨土行的瞭解,除法然的淨土宗和親鸞的淨土真宗外,所知不多了. 一直到最近,我們對中國淨土的認識,都深受日本人的觀點所影響.

任何有關淨土行現代重要性的討論,都須充分認識整個東亞地區的所有傳統法門. 本文將專門討論兩個十世紀日本淨土團體,以介紹中古時期日本僧侶修行的若干模式. 此外,作者也要說明有些日本淨土傳統並不只是念佛而已.

本文探討十世紀末兩個雨天台宗和著名文人慶滋保胤(約934-1002)關係密切的淨土組織. 這些組織都有僧俗四眾,可以當作十六世紀前日本最主宗教機構的淨土行模式. 事實上,它們可能隨源信的《往生要集》之傳入中國,而間接影響到中國的類似團體.

第一個團體是勸學會,成員有天台僧侶和京城攻讀管理課程的大學生. 他們一方面研讀《法華經》,一方面念佛. 此外,他們也模倣白居易作中文的佛師. 這個團體既是淨土組織,也是文人社團.

勸學會只存在約二十年,最後被「二十五三昧會」所取代. 這個團體雖最初以推廣僧侶的禪修為目的,但最後也包括來自不同階級的僧俗信徒. 期領導人物發展出一套淨土葬儀和法會儀軌.


One of the major topics of this conference is the contemporary significance of Pure Land practice. However,relatively little is known of traditional East Asian Pure Land practice in the west with the exceptions of Honen's 法然 Jodoshu 淨土宗 and Shinran's 親鸞 Jodo shinsh2u 淨土真宗. Until recently,our knowledge of Chinese Pure Land was heavily influenced by Japanese views of Chinese Pure Land practice and doctrine. Any consideration of the contemporary significance of Pure Land practices should by based on a fuller knowledge of the full range of traditional practices present in all of East Asia. By focusing on two groups of tenth century Japanese Pure Land practitioners, I hope to introduce several models of joint lay and monastic practice in medieval Japan. In addition,I intend to demonstrate that some Japanese Pure Land traditions were not exclusively devoted to the single practice of the nenbutsu.

This paper focuses on two Pure Land organizations in the late tenth century that were closely associated with the Tendai天台 School and a noted literary figure,Yoshishige no Yasutane 慶滋保胤 (ca. 934-1002). These organizations included both monks and lay believers and served as models for how Pure Land practices were conducted in Japan in the Tendai School,the dominant religious institution in Japan until the sixteenth century. In fact,the organizations might have indirectly influenced similar groups in China as information about them was transmitted to China along with Genshin's 源信 Ojoyoshu 往生要集.

The first group is called the Kangaku-e 勸學會 (Assembly to Promote Learning) and included both Tendai monks and students from college (daigaku大學) in the capital with a curriculum designed to produce able administrators. The members of this group combined lectures on the Lotus Sutra (Hokekyo 法華經) along with the chanting of the Nenbutsu 念佛. In addition,members of the assembly composed poems in Chinese,emulating Po Chu-I's 白居易 poems with Buddhist themes. Thus the group functioned as both a Pure Land assembly and a literary group.

The Kangaku-e lasted for about twenty years until it was finally replaced with the Assembly of the Twenty-five Meditative Concentrations Nijugo zanmai-e 二十五三昧會. Although this group originally focused on meditative techniques for monks, it eventually came to include both monks and lay believers from various classes. Pure Land funerary and memorial practices were developed by the leaders of the Nijugo zanmai-e.
ISBN9578473567
點閱次數266
建檔日期2000.12.05
更新日期2016.09.20










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