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The Ideal of Rissho Ankoku in the Nichiren Buddhist Movements of Postwar Japan=戰後日本日蓮佛教運動的「立正安國」理念
作者 Stone, Jacqueline I. (著)=史東 (au.)
出處題名 中華國際佛學會議實錄(第3屆):人間淨土與現代社會: = The Record of Chung-Hwa International Conference on Buddhism(3rd): The "Earthly" Pure Land and Contemporary Society
出版日期1998.02
頁次192 - 193
出版者法鼓文化出版社=Dharma Drum Culture
出版者網址 http://www.ddc.com.tw
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料類型會議論文=Proceeding Article
使用語言英文=English
附註項中英文提要; 中文論文提要:頁115.
中英文提要; 英文論文提要:pp.192-193.
關鍵詞Nichiren; Lotus Sutra; Rissho Ankoku; Stone, Jacqueline I.; 史東; 日蓮; 法華經; 立正安國
摘要The medieval Japanese Buddhist teacher Nichiren(1222-1282) espoused a doctrine of exclusive faith in the Lotus Sutra. By the practice and propagation o the Lotus Sutra, he taught,the Buddha land could be realized in this world. Nichiren expressed this idea as the principle of rissho ankoku,or "establishing the true [Dharma] and bringing peace to the land." This doctrine drew on earlier concepts of the immanent pure land based on Mahayana ideas of nonduality,as well as belief in the power of Buddhist ritual to protect the country. Nichiren did not elaborate on what this "earthly" Buddha land would be like,and his rissho ankoku ideal has been variously interpreted by his followers in successive historical periods. In this century,it has been appropriated for a number o social and political agendas of both right and left and,during WWII,were even used by some ultra nationalists to justify military expansion of the Japanese empire.

This paper focuses on interpretations of rissho ankoku that developed in Japan's postwar period in three newly formed Nichiren Buddhist movements:the socially engaged monastic order Nihonzan Myohoji and two lay Buddhist "New Religions, " Soka Gakkai and Rissho Koseikai. Motivated by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,a sense of Japan's war guilt with respect to rebuild a devastated Japan,all three interpreted Nichiren's ideal of rissho ankoku as mandating the abolition of atomic weapons and the mobilizing of efforts for "world peace." The varying ways in which they understood and pursued these goals provide different models for conceptualizing an "earthly" pure land as well as an opportunity for critical reflection on the relationship of Buddhist ideals to efforts for social reform.

中古日本的佛教大師日蓮(1223-1283)信奉法華經絕對信仰的教義. 透過《法華經》的修持和宏揚,他主張佛土是可以在這個世界達成的. 日蓮把這個觀念用「立正安國」就是「建立正法,安定國土」的意思. 這個教義源自大乘不二觀所發展出來的「心是淨土」的早期觀念,及佛教儀式足以保護國家的信仰. 日蓮並沒說明這個「人間」佛土是什麼樣子,他的「立正安國」理念,就被後世信徒做了各種不同的詮釋.

本世紀,不管是右派份子或左派份子,都援用這個理念來推動許多社會和政治計劃,在第二次世界大戰期間,某些極端民族主義者甚至利用這個理念來合理化日本帝國的軍事擴張.

本文將探討「立正安國」的詮釋再戰後日本所發展出來的三個日蓮佛教運動:積極參與社會事務的僧團「日本山萬福寺」和二個在家佛教「新興宗教」創僧學會和立正佼成會.

有鑑於廣島和長崎的原子彈慘劇,日本對其他亞洲國家發動戰爭的罪惡感,重建破敗日本的需要,這三個佛教運動都把日蓮「立正安國」的理念詮釋為廢除原子武器和全力達成「世界和平」. 他們瞭解和追求這些目標的不同方式,就提供了落實「人間」淨土的不同模式,並讓我們有機會慎重思考佛教理念和社會改革運動間的關係.
ISBN9578473567
點閱次數323
建檔日期2000.12.05
更新日期2016.09.13










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