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The Revival and Transformation of Monastic Discipline in Fourteenth Century Japanese Tendai:A Possible Model for Modernization of Monastic Discipline=菩薩戒與日常生活
作者 Groner, Paul
出處題名 The Fourth Chung Hwa International Conference on Buddhism: The Role of Buddhism in the 21st Century=第四屆中華國際佛學會議 -- 「佛教與廿一世紀」
出版日期2002.01.19
頁次6
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版地臺北縣, 臺灣 [Taipei hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型會議論文=Proceeding Article
使用語言英文=English
附註項The Fourth Chung Hwa International Conference on Buddhism:The Role of Buddhism in the 21st Century, Organized by Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, DDMBA; January 18-20, 2002, Auditorium of Acemic Activity Center, Acemia Sinica. 第四屆中華國際佛學會議 -- 「佛教與廿一世紀」, 法鼓山中華佛學研究所主辦, 2002年1月18-20日, 中央研究院學術活動中心.
關鍵詞Buddhism in 21st Century=佛教與廿一世紀
摘要One of the major problems that Buddhism has confronted in recent times is whether precepts and other rules for conduct should be altered. Buddhism has traditionally taken a conservative attitude towards this problem by not changing the precepts. However,the result has been that many of the precepts have been ignored even though they are still conferred.
In Japan,after Saicho (767-822) rejected the 250 precepts of the Sifenlu and adopted the precepts of the Fanwangjing for monastic ordinations, many approaches to altering or reviving the precepts were tried. In many ways, the Fanwang precepts were not appropriate as a guide for monastic discipline and had to be supplemented with other sets of precepts. As a result,Japan became a site where new approaches to the precepts were often tried. Although from the perspective of Chinese Buddhism,Japanese Buddhist experiences with altering the precepts may have had questionable results, some of the more serious efforts by Japanese Buddhists deserve attention as efforts by serious practitioners to create a more relevant set of rules for everyday living.
In this paper,I look at a series of texts by one of the most serious monks who attempted to reform the precepts, Jitsudo Ninku (1309-1388). Ninku served as abbot at two major temples, Sangoji and Rozanji. Over a thirty-year period,he wrote five sets of rules for temples, a major commentary on Zhiyi's Pusajie yiji,a guide to debate topics concerning the precepts, and several other texts. These works provide us with the opportunity to observe one of the most learned men of his age as he attempted to combine elements of the vinaya, Fanwangjing,and other sources to arrive at a comprehensive plan to both strengthen monastic discipline and make it more relevant. In the paper,I focus on the methods he used to evaluate and combine these sources, as well as some of the specific results of his efforts.

近代佛教面臨的主問題之一是戒律及其他行為規範是否需要修改. 佛教傳統以來對此問題一向採取不改變戒律的保守的態度,結果卻造成許多戒律雖受到討論,但久以為人忽略.
在日本,Saicho (767-822) 不採用《四分律》的二百五十條戒,而用《梵網經》的菩薩戒作為寺院的規範. 自此以後,就屢有修改或復興戒律的嚐試. 由於《梵網經》菩薩戒在許多方面不宜作為維持僧團紀律的指南,故需要佐以其他的戒律. 這是日本常有嚐試以新方法採用戒律之因. 從中國佛教的觀點來看,日本佛教修改戒律的確有可議處,但有些日本佛教徒認真嚴肅的為此所做的努力是不容忽視的,這是認真的修行人為要創造更切合日常生活的一套行為規範所做的努力.
革新戒律最力的諸多僧侶之一. Jitsudo Ninku (1309-1388),有一系列的作品,這是本文探討的主題. Ninku 曾任 Sangoji 與 Rozanji 兩大寺的住持. 他在三十年內寫出五套寺院清規,智顗《菩薩戒義疏》的注釋,一本關於戒律種種議題論辯的指南,及其他作品. 這些著作讓我們看到當時飽學之士試圖結合毘奈耶,《梵網經》菩薩戒,及其他資料來源,以建立一套全面的方案,一方面鞏固僧團的紀律,同時使戒律契合生活. 在這篇文章中,我的著眼點是 Ninku 如何評估與結合這些資料來源,及他的努力所造成的一些特定的影響.
目次Introduction
The Historical Background
Ninku and the Lecture Tradition
Conclusion
點閱次數267
建檔日期2002.02.15
更新日期2016.08.18










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