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Gotama Becomes the Buddha:A Study in Nikaaya Traditions=由尼柯耶論喬達摩成佛之道
作者 方怡蓉 (譯)=Fang, Yi-rong (tr.) ; 穆克紀 (著)=Mukherjee, Biswadeb (au.)
出處題名 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
卷期n.15
出版日期2002.07
頁次471 - 493
出版者中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English
附註項中文:471-477, 英文:478-493. Chinese:471-477, English:478-493. 2001年6月5日講於中華佛學研究所. A speech at Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies, on June 5, 2001.
關鍵詞初禪; 無上現法涅槃; 三摩地; 漏盡智; 如來; 我; The First Jhaana; Parama-di.t.tha-dhamma-nibbaanavaadins (PDN); Samaadhi; Aa`srava-k.saya-j~naana; Tathaagataa; Attaa
摘要The main concern of this speech is certain problems about the path which Gotama followed to become Tathaagata. First,according to the Nikaayas, Gotama surely practiced the 4 jhaanas. In Gotama's version of the 4 jhaanas in the Nikaayas there is no mention of "attaa" and "Parama-di.t.tha-dhamma-nibbaana". The next problem is about the spiritual experience after the attainment of the first jhaana. With the analysis of the Brahmajaala-sutta in Pali,after the attainment of the first jhaana, one does not abide in the first jhaana, for "the first jhaana" is a mere name for a series of mental elements. According to Brahmajaala-sutta and Vatthupama-sutta, due to the meditator's intentional separation from the object of desire and inexpedient mental elements, such mental elements as initial and sustained judgemental deliberations (vitakka and vicaara),pasaada (confidence),paamojja (glad),piiti (joy),passaddhi (physical tranquility),and sukha (happiness) naturally arise one after another and end with the arising of samaadhi (mental concentration). The meditator is able to remain conscious of samaadhi for some time,which situation is indicated by the statement "he abides (viharati)" (in "samaadhi"). The thoughts of all feelings are absent from the mind of the meditator,and therefore there is no awareness of "I". So it is quite possible that Gotama dropped the term "attaa" from his description of the 4 jhaanas. After the attainment of the other three jhaanas, the meditator was abiding in samaadhi. But because of some agitative elements Gotama could not abide in samaadhi for long until the attainment of the fourth jhaana. The most agitative elements in the first three jhaanas are vitakka and vicaara, piiti,and sukha respectively. Without any disturbing element,samaadhi after the fourth jhaana is stable and the meditator's mind is free from any feeling and "I-consciousness". It is then that it is possible for him to gain truly objective knowledge with no aid of any logical thinking. Gotama gained in order the truly objective knowledge of his own past lives, the past lives of others and the endless cycle of birth and death, and the aa`srava-k.saya-j~naana (the wisdom regarding the destruction of the aa`sravas). The realisation of aa`srava-k.saya-j~naana is, however,different from the realisation of nibbaana, for in former case the faculty of perception remains intact and disturbs the calmness in samaadhi. To experience the undisturbed calmness Gotama next followed the aarupya-samaapattis (the attainment of formlessness) and finally attained the state of the sa~n~naa-vedayita-nirodha (the cessation of perception and feeling),which is the closest possible approximation to the actual nibbaana. After the attainment of the sa~n~naa-vedayita-nirodha, Gotama declared himself to be the Tathaagataa.

此次演講主探討有關喬答摩成佛之道上的幾個問題. 首先,根據尼柯耶,可以確定喬答摩修四禪. 其次,「我」和「現法涅槃」並未出現在喬達摩修四禪的敘述中. 接著討論的是達到初禪後的精神體驗. 依據《梵網經》巴利原文的語法分析,達到初禪後並不是住於初禪,因「初禪」只是個名相,代表一連串心理狀態. 綜合《梵網經》和《布喻經》的敘述,由於禪修者刻意捨離了渴欲的對象與不善的心理狀態,有尋,伺,淨信,歡悅,喜,身輕安,樂等心理狀態自然地次第升起,最後止於三摩地. 禪修者能在三摩地中持續一段時間,也就是安住於三摩地. 此時心中對感受完全沒任何思惟憶念,因此沒自我意識的束縛,這或許是喬達摩把「我」一詞從他禪修的敘述中剔除之因. 達二. 三. 四禪後,一樣會住於三摩地. 然而,因有擾動定境的因素,四禪以下只能暫住於三摩地. 這些因素在初禪,二禪,三禪分別為尋伺,喜,樂. 住於第四禪的三摩地,沒擾亂定境的因素,所以是穩固的,沒自我意識的約束,沒覺受的影響,禪修者達到高度禪定,並且正念具足. 此時才有可能獲得真正客觀的知識,毋需藉助邏輯思考. 喬達摩達四禪住於三摩地時,依次如實知自己的過去世,眾生的過去世,苦樂生死輪轉無盡,最後得「漏盡智 (aa`srava-k.saya-j~naana)」,亦即有關除滅三種有漏的智慧. 然而證得漏盡智菩提並不等同於證涅槃,因還有想蘊會干擾定境. 為要住於定境不受干擾,喬達摩另外修無色定,最後達到滅想受定,止息了一切受蘊,並且把想蘊降低至不足以干擾定境的程度,這個境界最接近涅槃的狀態,這是禪修者在此世間可以經歷到的涅槃. 在達滅受想定後,喬達摩便自稱為「如來 (Tathaagataa)」.
ISSN10177132 (P)
點閱次數1206
建檔日期2002.09.03
更新日期2017.06.20










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