楊傑; 淨土; 禪; 華嚴; 宋史; Yang Chieh; Pure Land; Ch'an; Hua-yen; Sung History
本文討論北宋居士楊傑與佛教之關係，指出楊傑為北宋最重要之佛教居士之一，他鼓吹淨土，調和禪淨，並宣揚華嚴教義，對佛教貢獻不小，在北宋社會各階層享有盛名. 然《宋史》楊傑本傳，只錄楊傑之事功，偏於敘述其制禮作樂之經過，而於其佛教信仰與作為，無片言隻字及之，實為元史臣之缺失. 本文以蘇軾在楊傑館伴義天入杭時所作之 <送楊傑> 詩為引子，指出楊傑博通釋典，長於論說，為北宋朝廷，文士及僧侶所重. 其餘各段證明楊傑確為一儒釋兼通而又相當活躍之佛教居士. 他深信彌陀，鼓吹淨土往生，強調念佛之效. 還熟習華嚴教典，堅信讀經之功. 他推崇永明《宗鏡錄》，調和禪淨爭議，主張「唯新淨土」，卻不執著於心外無淨土之說. 本文之討論，在在顯示楊傑與佛教密切之關係，足以補《宋史》楊傑本傳之缺. This paper discusses the relations between Yang Chieh 楊傑 (dates unclear) and Buddhism，and argues that Yang Chieh was one of the most important lay Buddhists in the Northern Sung. As a lay Buddhist，Yang Chieh advocated the Pure Land faith, harmonized supporters of Ch'an and Pure Land Buddhism，and promoted Hua-yen teachings, thus contributing to the continuous growth of Buddhist communities. Despite his renown，the biography of the Sung History 宋史 records only his achievements in the areas of Confucian rites and music and fails to take into account his faith in and patronage of Buddhism. The paper begins with a discussion of a poem that Su Shih 蘇軾 (1036-1101) wrote to bid Yang Chieh farewell when the latter was commissioned to accompany Uich'on 義天 (1055-1101)，a monk and prince from Korea, on a trip to Hang-chou- It points out that Yang Chieh was highly respected by his contemporaneous scholars and monks for being conversant with Buddhist scriptures and eloquent in argumentative discourse. The remaining section of the paper proves that Yang Chieh was indeed well versed in both Confucian. and Buddhist literature and that he was an active lay Buddhist. This section highlights Yang's dedication to the Pure Land faith and trust in the Buddha Amitabha, belief in the efficacy of intoning the Buddha Amitabha's name，familiarity with Hua-yen scriptures, and emphasis on the merit of scriptural studies. The paper also calls attention to how Yang Chieh held Yung-ming Yen-shou's Tsung-ching 宗鏡錄 in high esteem，how he tried to harmonize the conflict between advocates of Ch'an and Pure Land Buddhism，and how he supported the theory of "the Mind-only Pure Land" without succumbing to the notion of "No Pure Land Outside of the Mind". To sum up，the paper does justice to Yang Chieh by detailing his close connection with Buddhism. Its portrayal of Yang Chieh can supplement Yang's biography in the Sung History，adding to it elements that are otherwise missing from the text.