「轉依」理論探析 -- 以《成唯識論》及窺基《成唯識論述記》為中心=A Study of the Theory of the "Transformation of the Basis(Āśraya-parivrtti or Āśraya-parāvrtti)" : Focusing on the "Cheng weishi lun" and Kuiji's "Cheng weishi lun shuji"
作者為臺灣大學哲學研究所博士候選人=Ph.D. Candidate of Graduate Institute of Philosophy, National Taiwan University
轉依=ransformation of the basis (ā?raya-parivr纡tti or ā?raya-parāvr纡tti); 所依=basis (ā?raya); 因緣依=basis of causes and conditions; 等無間緣依=basis of incessant causation; 增上緣依=basis of causes beyond direct empowerment; 六種轉依位別=six stages of the "transformation of the basis"; 四種轉依義別=four meanings of the "transformation of the basis"; 持種依=basis of the holding seeds; 阿賴耶識=store consciousness (ālayavijñāna); 二分依他起性=two aspects of the "dependent nature (paratantra-svabhāva)"
This article is a study of the Chinese Yogācāra theory of the “transformation of the basis (āśraya-parivrtti or āśraya-parāvrtti)”, and will focus on Dharmapāla (護法, fl. c. 6th century)’s Cheng weishi lun (《成唯識論》) and Kuiji (窺基, 632-682 C.E.)’s Cheng weishi lun shuji (《成唯識論述記》). My main points are summarized as follows: (1) Introduce the debate on the two Sanskrit words(āśraya-parivrtti or āśraya-parāvrtti) of the “transformation of the basis” in the international academia. (2) According to Cheng weishi lun, the word “basis(ā?raya)” of the “transformation of the basis” is “the basis is the condition.” Therefore, Cheng weishi lun lists three kinds of meanings of the “basis” in the cognition [or consciousness] (citta) and the mental function (caitasika or caitta); these are the “basis of the causes and conditions, and basis of the incessant causation, basis of the causes beyond direct empowerment.” In Kuiji’s opinion, these three kinds of meanings are “based on the condition.” But if we put these three kinds of meanings into the context of the “four conditions,” there is no “basis of the object as condition” here. So, we have to notice that there are differences between the “basis” and the “condition”. (3) From the perspective of Cheng weishi lun and Kuiji’s commentaries, analyze the “six stages of the ‘transformation of the basis’ ” and the “four meanings of the ‘transformation of the basis.’ ” And the debate on the two Sanskrit words of the “transformation of the basis” in Cheng weishi lun means the “basis of the holding seeds”(i.e. ālayavijñāna) and the “basis of delusion and enlightenment”(i.e. tathatā). Hence I argue that the “basis of the holding seeds” (i.e. ālayavijñāna) equals to “two aspects of the ‘dependent nature (paratantra-svabhāva)’ ” equals to the “transformation of the basis.” (4) Introduce Alan Sponberg’s study(1982) about the “transformation of the basis” and three models of the “theory of the three natures” (there are: “The Pivotal Model,” “The Progressive Model,” and “A Model of K’uei-chi (Kuiji)’s Interpretation.”) And I also offer some of my criticism.