It is said that Mount Putuo (普陀山) is the legendary pure land that Avalokite?vara, the Goddess of Mercy, appeared in China. During the Ming Dynasty, Mount Putuo developed into a crucial moment. The rise and decline of this sacred mountain relied on government policies. During the reign of Hong Wu (洪武) emperor, in order to protect Mount Putuo from the occupation of Japanese pirates, the government moved the temples to Zhejiang province and blockaded the mountain. The prohibitory edict was not lifted until the Wan Li (萬曆) reign. Shenzong (神宗) emperor, under the influence of his mother, a devout Buddhist, actively protected Buddhism and Mount Putuo. He provided financial and medical assistance as well as statues of Buddha to the temples of Mount Putuo. With his support, Mt. Putuo attracted more and more believers. In reality, the development of Mount Putuo was inevitably and closely influenced by political and social changes. Standing on this point, this research focuses on the relationship between Mount Putuo’s developments and government policies under the Ming Dynasty.