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南朝「踞食論義」所反映儒、佛交涉的理論思維與文化意涵=Differences in Confucian and Buddhist Thought and Cultural Implications Reflected in the "Debate Over Eating While Squatting" in the Southern Dynasties
作者 紀志昌 (著)=Chi, Chih-chang (au.)
出處題名 臺大文史哲學報=Humanitas Taiwanica
卷期n.76
出版日期2012.05
頁次67 - 105
出版者國立臺灣大學文史哲學報編輯委員
出版者網址 http://liberal.ntu.edu.tw/index.htm
出版地臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese; 英文=English; 梵文=Sanskrit
附註項100.08.12收稿,101.03.07通過刊登。
本文為國科會專題研究計畫(NSC-2410-H-110-072-MY2)之部分研究結果,承蒙兩位審查人賜正,僅此致謝。
作者為國立中山大學中國文學系副教授=Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, Sun Yat-sen University
關鍵詞南朝=Southern Dynasties; 儒佛交涉=interplay between Confucian and Buddhism; 名教=Confucian ethical codes; 踞食=eating while Squatting; 玄學=Neo-Taoism; 結跏趺坐=sitting cross-legged
摘要所謂「踞食」,為僧伽坐儀之一,亦即踞坐(伸腳坐)而食,是中國在魏晉南北朝以來僧人進食時所採取的一種坐姿。本文要在從南朝士人鄭道子與范秦對僧伽「踞食」現象的批判中,疏理其中歷程原委,並從儒、佛交涉的角度,觀察二家論辯往覆的理論思維、詮釋觀點及所反映之文化意涵。
踞式向來即為違禮不敬之姿,僧人踞食即衝擊到中土士人對傳統儀法之接受慣性、觀感與禮教觀念,遂引發質疑與批評。名教論者往往藉由玄學思維模式,如:「崇本」、「理一」、「得意」之說的運用,作為闡釋聖人「因方弘教」、「隨俗制法」觀念的理論工具,其間僧人的應對則自有維護戒律法理與僧伽自主之考量。研究發現,名教論者基於傳統之文化情境,對僧伽踞食之法理多所誤解;唯相關論議的目的,究非以「儒」統「佛」,而是引導出雙方共同都能接受的作法,即以「結跏跌坐」作為二方於坐儀上的調和折衷之道。

"Eating while squatting" was a type of sitting ritual by monks, where they would squat (sit with legs out) while eating. It began in Wei-Jin Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. This paper considers the criticism of "eating while squatting" by Southern Dynasties scholars Zheng Dao Zi and Fan Tai, to clarify the processes and reasons for it. The perspective of interplay between Confucianism and Buddhism is used to observe the theoretical concepts in the debate between them, to interpret the perspectives and the related cultural implications.
Squatting was traditionally seen as an improper and disrespectful posture, and for monks to eating while squatting certainly challenged the acceptance customs, views, and ritual concepts of the Chinese, which elicited doubt and criticism. Ritualists tended to use the thought models in mysticism, such as: "essence/triviality," "essence/function," and "when meaning is understood, words can be forgotten" as theoretical tools to explicate the concept of sages " creating ceremony based on local customs." In comparison, a monk considered the maintenance of principles of laws and monk organizational autonomy when using the "squatting" position while eating.
This paper finds that based on traditional cultural contexts, ritualists had many misunderstandings about the monk practice of eating while squatting. However, the purpose of the related debate was not to use Confucianism to govern Buddhism, but rather to introduce methods that both Confucians and Buddhists could accept ── that is to use a cross-legged as a compromise in sitting etiquette.
目次一、前論:踞食論議之原委始末 68
(一)議論過程概述 68
(二)論議中持守踞食的「禪師」與相關僧人關係 76
二、踞食論議中的儒、佛交涉思維 79
(一)以「崇本」立和同之道 79
(二)從「得意」論證「名教」本於「自然」 85
三、踞食論議所反映的文化意涵 90
(一)「踞」式之文化情境的詮解 90
(二)僧人踞式的折衷、調和之道 ──結跏跌坐 95
四、結論 100
引用書目 102
英文摘要 104
ISSN10152687 (P)
點閱次數346
建檔日期2013.01.10
更新日期2020.11.17










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