A concern with “peace of the nation ” was an integral part of Nichiren，s religious vision. This paper examines Nichiren’s understanding' of the term “nation” (kokka), which for him pertained not so much to the politi cal power structure, as much as to the land and the people who lived there in. His view of the Tenno and of earthly political power can then be seen in this light, as instruments toward establishing peace in the land and among the people. For Nichiren the highest value is the Transcendent Power who is none other than Sakyamuni Buddha, before whom all human beings stand on an equal plane. Failure on the part of political rulers to achieve the goal for which they are in power, that is, “peace of the nation, ” results in their fall from power, and even death, or punishment in hell. This paper also surveys how tms revolutionary message of Nichiren was modified by his followers in the course of Japanese history.