In this introduction I focus on the hidden, or “occult” side of the internationalization of Japanese Buddhism during the Meiji Period. Th e success of Olcott’s trip to Japan, on the one hand, made the Buddhism revival visible, but, on the other hand, gave Japanese Buddhism too much self-conﬁ dence and pride to continue dialogue with Buddhists abroad. Olcott dreamed of a non-sectarian and all-inclusive form of Buddhism, while Japanese Buddhist sects needed him as “a white Buddhist” only to show their superiority to Christianity. As their objectives and strategies were so diﬀ erent, they were doomed to part with each other from the beginning. But there were some Japanese Buddhists who listened to “Buddhists” abroad. Th ey were intellectuals well versed with Western thoughts and languages, and acted as Buddhist reformers who opened the way to reform movements. Among them, Nakanishi Ushirō, Hirai Kinza and Suzuki Teitarō took a rationalistic view of religion during the middle of the Meiji Period, while Furukawa Rōsen and Taoka Reiun took an experience-oriented approach to religion.
1. Meiji Buddhism: An Overview 119 2. Reformers in the Meiji 20s and Meiji 30s 123 3. Meeting Foreign "Buddhists" 124 4. Aftermath 128 conclusion 130