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Treatise Resolving Doubts About the Pure Land (Jingtu jueyi lun 凈土決疑論) by Master Yinguang 印光 (1861–1947)
作者 Jones, Charles B. (譯)=周文廣 (tr.)
出處題名 Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies
卷期n.14 Third Series
出版日期2012
頁次27 - 61
出版者Institute of Buddhist Studies
出版者網址 http://www.shin-ibs.edu/
出版地Berkeley, CA, US [伯克利, 加利福尼亞州, 美國]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言英文=English
附註項Translated by Charles B. Jones
School of Theology and Religious Studies
Catholic University of America
摘要Master Yinguang (印光, 1861–1947) is one of the four most influential Buddhist monks in modern Chinese history, along with the modernizer and reformer Taixu 太虛 (1890–1947), the monastic precepts master Hongyi 弘一 (1880–1942), and the meditation master Xuyun 虛 雲 (1840–1959). During a period when some who were aligned with the Chan school attacked Pure Land Buddhist teachings as vulgar, shallow, and suited only to the needs of the uneducated, superstitious classes,1 Yinguang worked to define the tradition and its practices on a solid theoretical basis. His classical education, erudition, wide knowledge of Buddhist scriptures, and simple devotion earned him a following throughout the Chinese Buddhist world. Upon his death, he was widely acclaimed as the thirteenth patriarch (zu 祖) of the Pure Land school. The arguments presented in this treatise, which takes the form of a debate between Yinguang and an unnamed Chan monk, occur in the context of two separate and competing streams of Pure Land thought. The first, called “Consciousness-only Pure Land” (weishi jingtu 惟/唯識 凈土) or “Mind-only Pure Land” (惟/唯心凈土), took its cue from the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra, which teaches that the land in which a buddha dwells is innately pure; any apparent impurity in it arises from the deluded mind of the observer. Thus, when the disciple Śāriputra wonders why the realm of his master, Śākyamuni Buddha, seems so impure, the Buddha grants him the ability to see the world as a buddha sees it— where all appears pure and dazzling in all directions. As the Buddha explains, “Just so, Śāriputra, living beings born in the same buddhafield see the splendor of the virtues of the buddha-fields of the Buddhas according to their own degrees of purity.”2 The point of this, as critics of “superstitious and vulgar” practitioners of Pure Land Buddhism never failed to point out, is that the Pure Land cannot be localized at all, nor ought it to be conceived of as a place outside this impure world. Rather, purification of one’s mind through meditative practice brings about the purification of this present world. Purity is ultimately in the mind of the beholder. Yinguang represented the other side of this debate. In postulating a pure land that was outside of the present impure world, which could be localized to the west of the present world, and which could not be reduced to a psychological state or fable, he belonged to the tradition referred to as “Western Pure Land” (xifang jingtu 西方凈土) or “otherdirection Pure Land” (tafang jingtu 他方凈土). In this capacity, he strove against his unnamed adversary’s strategy (a venerable one in Chinese Buddhist history) of defining Pure Land practice in Chan terms, and of dismissing a literalist interpretation of the Pure Land as ignorant and dualistic. In fighting this view, Yinguang refers to scriptures that describe even the most realized bodhisattvas seeking rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Pure Land in the West, reinterprets Yongming Yanshou’s (永 明延壽, 904–975) famous fourfold relation of Chan and Pure Land, and even quotes famous Chan masters and patriarchs to show that they were not quite as anti–Pure Land as they might have sometimes appeared to be. In the course of the debate, he gradually wears down his opponent, and in the end the Chan follower submits to Yinguang as his teacher and vows to seek rebirth himself in the Pure Land. The text is of interest not only because of Yinguang’s eminence within the history of Pure Land Buddhism in China as a popularizer and author, but also because it straddles the divide between premodern and modern Buddhist concerns in China. This may well be the last text ever to debate the positions of “Western Pure Land” versus “other-direction Pure Land,” since at the time of its publication Taixu was proclaiming his new ideas about “Buddhism for human life” (rensheng fojiao 人生 佛教), a set of ideas about finding a place for Buddhism in the midst of human affairs rather than in the worlds of gods or in the af
ISSN08973644 (E)
點閱次數212
建檔日期2015.02.11
更新日期2021.02.03










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