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新羅華嚴宗的成立=The Foundation of the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism
作者 金相鉉 (著)=Kim, Sang-hyun (au.)
出處題名 華嚴學報=Journal of Huayen Buddhism
卷期n.4
出版日期2012.11
頁次129 - 146
出版者中華民國佛教華嚴學會
出版者網址 https://www.huayenworld.org/
出版地新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
關鍵詞義相=Uisang; 新羅華嚴宗=Avatamska Sect of Silla; 華嚴一乘法界圖=Diagram of the Dharmadhtu according to the one vehicle of Huayan; 華嚴十剎=Ten Avatamska Temples
摘要有關宗派的成立和變遷問題是韓國佛教研究中的重要領域之一。七○年代,金映遂認為在新羅時代相繼有戒律宗、涅槃宗、芬皇宗、華嚴宗、法相宗等五大宗派的成立。但是受到學界大部份學者的強烈反對,不僅史料方面的證據不足,而且對史料的判讀也有錯誤之處,所以新羅時代有五大宗派的論點難以成立。但是曾經在教學上一度流行的唯識學和華嚴學是兩個特例。以新羅的華嚴學來說,已經充分具備宗派的特徵。
本文就由義相而創建的新羅華嚴宗做一番考證,分別對義相的華嚴講會、師資相承;華嚴寺院的設立;華嚴學僧與唯識學僧的論爭;新羅下代的華嚴宗以及對海東華嚴初祖的認識等問題做詳細說明。
義相被稱為海東華嚴初祖的最重要原因是華嚴宗傳入新羅,崔致遠稱之為「傳燈妙業」,《三國遺事》的作者一然專門列舉了〈義湘傳教〉的題目來說明。義相於文武王十六年 (676) 在太白山創建了浮石寺,就此大興華嚴,後人稱其為浮石尊者。義相以弟子為對象,講演《華嚴經》或者自己的撰述《華嚴一乘法界圖》,比如太伯山大蘆房講會、浮石山四十日會、小白山錐洞九十日會等。在義相門下有眾多弟子,被稱為十大弟子的是悟真、智通、表訓、真定、真藏、道融、良圓、相源、能仁、義寂等。通過義相及其弟子的師資相承,華嚴宗得以在新羅流傳開來。由其本人或者弟子創建的寺院也被稱為華嚴十剎。

The initiation of a Buddhist sect is one of the most important issues of Korean Buddhist history studies. Kim Young-soo has asserted that there were five Buddhist sects existed during Silla peirod. Even though his opinion has been widely criticised, the fact that the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism can surely be characterized as a religious sect still remains reliable. This study concerns Uisang's foundation of the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism and its development afterwards. The inheritance of academical tradition among Uisang's disciples, constructions of the Avatamska temples, and doctrinal arguments between Avatamska and Vijnapti-matrata scholar monks have been examined during the researching process. Uisang established Buseok Temple on Mt. Taebaek in the 16th year of the King Munmu's reign and started to preach the Avatamska study. This fact proves that the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism was initiated by Uisang. His nickname, the very first originator of the Avatamska Sect of Korea, reflects the fact. Uisang had many disciples and ten of them, 'the ten great disciples', were especially noted. Jinjeong, Sangwon, Yangwon, and Pyohun are the representative ones and they were called 'the four geniuses' at the time. Uisang had handed down the Avatamska tradition to his disciples, and their successors all inherited the tradition from their masters. There were ten Buddhist temples built by Uisang and his disciples and they were called 'the ten Avatamska temples'. The inheritance of the Avatamska tradition and the construction of those temples were based on the factional consciousness of the Avatamska Sect. From the late 7th century to early 8th century, there were doctrinal arguments and conflicts between Avatamska and Vijnapti-matrata scholar monks. There are one legend about a Vijnapti-matrata scholar monk named Sungyeong from Silla which contains a story about him being turned into hell, naraka, alive since he criticised the Avatamska Sutra. This legend must have been derived from the difference between Avatamska and Vijnapti-matrata Buddhism. There were other arguments between the Yogacara and Avatamska Sects, Uisang and Uijeok, and Sungeop and Dojeung. These arguments and conflicts were likely to be initiated by their factional consciousness at the time. In the late 9th century, the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism established the Avatamska Association to praise the achievement of their originators and to repay the originators' blessing. The Association was aiming to reorganize the Avatamska Sect for a new phase of their religion and to promote harmony in their sect. There is an inscription on the Iron Buddhist statue of Samhwa Temple and the term '華嚴業 ' is seen from the inscription. This term can be regarded as a specific evidence of the existence of the Avatamska Sect of Silla Buddhism.
ISSN22226685 (P)
點閱次數176
建檔日期2016.04.25
更新日期2022.12.08










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