The two surviving grottoes at Golden Pagoda Temple (Chin-t'a-ssu) are among the most significant early cave shrines found in the Kansu area. The bodily structure of the images, posture of the apsaras, and appearance of the human figures in these caves suggests that the eastern grotto was excavated around the 450s and 460s A.D., while the construction of the western grotto commenced around the 470s or slightly later. The difference in the size and date of the two caves suggests that they were not designed as a set. The arrangement of the images reveals that the eastern cave was designed around the notion of the Buddhas of the ten directions and present, past, and future, while the western cave was highly inspired by the Maitreya belief. The central pillars in both the eastern and western caves are divided into two tiers, larger on top and narrower on the bottom. The bodies of the human figures are thick and heavy, and the apsaras large. Together, these features can all be regarded as remnants of the Liang-chou tradition. At the same time, the "Y"-shaped drapery flods, along with new images such as the Maitreya Buddha with crossed legs and Maitreya Buddha with two legs pendent, clearly demonstrate the influence of the Yun-kang Grotto. The former features reflect the continuation of local tradition, while the later features are closely related to the Northern Wei court's active involvement in the Kansu area between the 450s and 480s.