十二至十三世紀東亞禪宗與儒教：試論道元關於三教一致說批判的對象及其背景=East Asian Ch'an Buddhism and Confucianism in 12th and 13th Century: Examines Targets and Background of Dōgen's Criticism of the Theory of the Consistency among the Three Major Chinese Religions
東亞禪宗=East Asian Ch'an Buddhism; 三教一致說批判=Criticism of the theory of the consistency among the three major Chinese religions; 道元禪學=Dōgen's Zen Buddhism; 《法華經》=Saddharma-pundarika-Sūtra; 《楞嚴經》=Surangamasamadhi (Lengyan Jing); 《圓覺經》=Yuanjue Sūtra; 六祖惠能=Six Patriarch Huineng
This paper examines the targets and background of Dōgen's criticism of the theory of the consistency among the three major Chinese religions. This theory argues that Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were fundamentally in agreement with one another. Dōgen felt that the Song (960-1279) theory in vogue at that time was also heterodoxy, and felt that the popularity of the theory of the consistency among the three major religions was an indicator of the decline of Buddhism, and urged his disciples not to listen to it so uncritically. According to what Dōgen said, those who advocated the theory of consistency belittled the doctrine of the Saddharma-pundarika-Sūtra (法華經) and esteemed the Surangamasamadhi (首楞嚴經) and Yuanjue (圓覺經)Sūtra. Because it was said that the Six Patriarch Huineng (惠能, 638-713) esteemed the Saddharma-pundarlka, Mahaparnirvana (涅槃經) and Vajra (金剛經) Sūtra, Dōgen felt that it was inconsistent with Zen tradition to esteem the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtras, pointing out that from very early on there had been those who doubted the authenticity of the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtras, suggesting that they were not Buddhist. According to our research, Dōgen first started to criticize the theory of the consistency of the three religions in 1243. One cannot find any criticism from him before that date. In 1243 Shoichi (聖一, 1202-1280), a Japanese monk of the Linji (臨濟) Sect who had made a pilgrimage to China, arrived in Kyoto to be the abbot of Tofuku (東福) Temple. It was also precisely in this year that many disciples of the Daruma Sect came to Dōgen to be converted to his sect. All of these disciples esteemed the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtra, and advocated the consistency of the three religions. Their stream of teaching was completely of the Chinese Song Dynasty Linji Sect. Having verified these facts, we believe that the targets of Dōgen's criticism were in fact the Chinese Linji Sect and those who continued their stream of teaching in Japan, the Japanese followers of the Linji Sect, as well as the followers of the Daruma Sect. The reason for carrying out this criticism was because of the existence of the Daruma and Linji Sects in Japan. He wanted to criticize them from the viewpoint of sutras held by the Sixth Patriarch, and thus make crystal clear the orthodoxy of the Zen ideas he taught, and emphasize that what he adhered to was the orthodoxy that had been passed down from the Six Patriarch Huineng of the Tang Dynasty (618-907).