Throughout the long history of Sino-Japanese Buddhism, it has been believed that the Buddhism of both countries shares a common origin and holds identical teachings. However, in the modern period, their mutual differences have been gradually recognized, so much so that it has become apparent that they bear little resemblance to each other. The differences among them are not limited to their traditional aspects or doctrine, but are also closely related to the experience of the establishment of self-identity during the modern period. Understanding the process of change from the perspective that they shared a common Buddhism, and then to the recognition that their relationship was one of “others” is important in highlighting the vicissitudes of Sino-Japanese Buddhist exchange, and is crucial for any discussion of Buddhist modernity in East Asia. In this paper we will investigate this issue by looking at Ogurusu Kōchō 小栗栖香頂 (1831–1905), the pioneer in spreading the True Pure Land School (Jōdo Shinshū 浄土真宗) teachings in China.