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《達磨胎息論》諸本的成立 ── 以敦煌本為中心=The Damo Taixi Lun: A Study of the Dunhuang Texts
作者 曹凌 =Cao, Ling
出處題名 法鼓佛學學報=Dharma Drum Journal of Buddhist Studies
卷期n.23
出版日期2018.12.01
頁次25 - 67
出版者法鼓佛教研修學院
出版者網址 http://www.ddbc.edu.tw/zh/
出版地臺北縣, 臺灣 [Taipei hsien, Taiwan]
資料類型期刊論文=Journal Article
使用語言中文=Chinese
附註項曹凌,上海師範大學哲學與法政學院講師。
關鍵詞達磨胎息論=Damo Taixi lun; 胎息法=Embryonic Breathing; 內丹=Internal alchemy; 達摩=Bodhidharma
摘要  《達磨胎息論》是一種託名於達摩的胎息法文獻。五代至宋,此文獻曾一度非常流行,並衍生出一系列的修改本。因其在佛道交涉方面具有獨特的價值,之前亦曾有學者加以關注和研究。然其所據者均是《道藏》內所存之《雲笈七籤》本與《道樞》本。本文提出在敦煌遺書中亦存在此文獻的鈔本三種,可復原出一個與藏內二本相異的獨特文本,作為研究的新資料。本文在對前述敦煌本進行整理和簡單分析之後,結合藏內二本及其他文獻中對《達磨胎息論》的引用,就《達磨胎息論》的產生時間、產生背景與現存三種文本之間關係等問題進行了初步的討論,提出《達磨胎息論》至遲在五代時期即已出現。其主要撰述依據是道書《內真妙用訣》,所宣揚的是一種以神氣相合的理念為核心的呼吸法類技巧。敦煌本大體遵循了這一方向,可能是一種較早期的修改本,主要服務於辟穀法的實踐。《道樞》本則是參照內丹學方法,重新構建起了一種內丹化的全新胎息法。從其修法的特徵及《調神歌》中部分文句對張伯端詩文的引用判斷,它可能是在北宋中期以後根據新興的南宗內丹學撰寫的新訣要。

  The Damo Taixi Lun is a text ascribed to the Chan master Bodhidharma which introduces the practice of "embryonic breathing" (胎息). This text enjoyed great popularity beginning from the period of the Five Dynasties up until the Song dynasty. Previously, a number of scholar have taken an interest in this text, due to its great value for the study of the interaction between Buddhism and Daoism. Yet, all past research was conducted based on the two versions of the text found in the Daoist canon (道藏), the Yunji Qiqian (雲笈七籤) and the Daoshu (道樞). In this article, I will discuss the three variants found among the Dunhuang texts. These variants prove to be valuable new resources for the study of this text, presenting significant differences from the versions contained in the Daoist canon. This article begins with a basic survey and analysis of the contents of the aforementioned Dunhuang versions. Subsequently, I will conduct a preliminary discussion of the dates of the Damo Taixi Lun, the context surrounding its emergence, and its relationship with the other variants of the text. I have determined that the text must have appeared no later than during the period of the Five Dynasties, and that the main source for its composition was the Daoist text called the Liuzhen Miaoyong Jue (內真妙用訣) which imparts a form of breathing technique based on the harmonizing of shen (神) and qi (氣). The Dunhuang versions follow the general outline of this text, and were probably early adaptations of the original, related to the Daoist fasting practice called pigu (辟穀). The Daoshu (道樞) variant on the other hand draws from the Daoist practice of internal alchemy, neidan (內丹), to create a new form of "embryonic breathing" practice. By analyzing its method of practice and looking at passages in the Diaoshenge (調神歌) which borrows from Zhang Boduan’s (張伯端) poetry, we can surmise that this text was composed in the middle of the Northern Song dynasty under the growing influence of the Southern school of Neidan practice.
目次一、緒言 28
二、《達磨胎息論》的敦煌本及其整理 31
(一)寫本的情況與整理 31
(二)關於敦煌本《達磨胎息論》的結構 36
三、《達磨胎息論》的引用情況 38
(一)與《達磨胎息論》相關的引文 38
(二)關於引文的一些分析 45
四、《達磨胎息論》諸本的成立——基於新資料的再檢討 49
(一)《達磨胎息論》理論部分的淵源及敦煌本的節略問題 49
(二)敦煌本與《道樞》本的關係——以修行方法為中心 53
五、結論 61
ISSN19968000 (P)
點閱次數32
建檔日期2019.09.03
更新日期2019.09.03










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