SONEHARA Satoshi is an assistant professor at Tōhoku University, Japan. He has published numerous studies on Japanese intellectual history, literature and religion. UMEDA Chihiro is a professor at Kyoto Women’s University, Japan. She has published research on various aspects of Japanese intellectual and religious history. Christopher MAYO is a professor at Kōgakkan University, Japan. His research focuses on the social and cultural history of medieval Japan. SERIGUCHI Mayuko is an assistant professor at Gifu University, Japan. She publishes and teaches about religions in early modern Japan. HŌZAWA Naohide is a professor at Toyo University, Japan. His current research focuses on the social and political history of early modern Japan.
Nikkō Tōshōgū; Ise Jingū; Higashi Honganji; danka seido; Tokugawa
Representative scholarship on early modern Japan has viewed most religious organizations as submitting to the authority of the military government, which treated them as tools of the Tokugawa regime’s ideologically-based rule. However, in recent years, empirical research in many areas has begun to overturn this perception, and it has become clear that unexpected religious transformations were occurring independent of state ideologies. This essay highlights ways in which religion functioned as a force for cohesion in society ––not as a tool monopolized by the powerful elite, but rather as an institution that was influenced by people from various strata in society. The primary aim of this research is to reexamine relationships among the state, religious organizations, and communities in the context of national integration, in order to bring to the fore particular examples of how these relationships were changing. Secondarily, in addition to deepening our understanding of existing lines of inquiry, the five authors attempt to stake out some new directions in scholarship, particularly in deepening our understanding of how a multiplicity of voices required negotiations and adjustments to make the system fit reality in some of the major institutions that we associate with Japan’s early modernity.
Abstract Introduction 41 Historical Background 41 Overview 43 Part I: A “Divine Nation” 44 Part II: “Kumano Nuns” and the Ise Shrine Complex 48 Part III: The Populace and Flows of Religious Knowledge 55 Part IV: Conventional Wisdom and Forged Laws 60 Conclusion 65 References 70