This paper deals with hitherto unresolved questions regarding the opening verse of Nāgārjuna’s Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (MMK) in Chapter 1 titled “Examination of Conditions.” In this well-known stanza Nāgārjuna negates the “arising” of things in the four possible ways: from themselves, from others, from both, or without cause (MMK1.1). Despite a good number of studies so far executed, a few significant questions remain unresolved. In this regard, the present paper aims at reconsidering the following three points yet to be fully examined. The first point is whether Nāgārjuna presents only a conclusion in the above stanza (MMK 1.1) without showing any reasons for it in his discussion. The second concerns Bhāviveka’s criticism of Buddhapālita’s explanation of the above verse and whether it is logically valid or not. In relation to this question, the third and most important point is whether we have arrived at an accurate understanding of Candrakīrti’s discussion which vindicates Buddhapālita’s explanation with a methodological criticism of Bhāviveka. This paper mainly discusses the third point, with reference to the first two, when necessary.
Abstract Introduction 13 On the order Of Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 1.1–3 13 Buddhapālita-mūlamadhyamaka-vṛtti on Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 1.1 15 Mūlamadhyamaka-vṛtti-Prasannapadā (PSP) and Prajñāpradīpamūlamadhyamaka-vṛtti (PP) on Mūlamadhyamakakārikā (MMK) 1.1 17 On the negation of “[things’] arising from others,” Candrakīrti cites bothBuddhapālita’s explanation and Bhāviveka’s criticism of it as follows: 18 On the negation of “[things’] arising without cause,” Candrakīrti quotes bothBuddhapālita’s explanation and Bhāviveka’s criticism of it as follows: 19 Analysis of Bhāviveka and Candrakīrti’s Discussions 20 Conclusion 21 References 25