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Master Sheng Yen’s Pure Land Teachings: Synthesizing the Traditional and the Modern=聖嚴法師的淨土思想:綜合傳統與現代的教門
作者 Jones, Charles B. (著)=周文廣 (au.)
出處題名 聖嚴研究:第十一輯=Studies of Master Sheng Yen Vol.11
出版日期2018.11
頁次259 - 283
出版者法鼓文化
出版者網址 http://www.ddc.com.tw/
出版地臺北, 臺灣 [Taipei, Taiwan]
叢書名聖嚴思想論叢
叢書號11
資料類型專題研究論文=Research Paper
使用語言英文=English
附註項Author Affiliations: Associate Professor, School of Theology and Religious Studies, Catholic University, U.S.A.
美國天主教大學神學與宗教研究學院副教授
關鍵詞Sheng Yen=聖嚴; Taixu=太虛; Pure Land=淨土宗; Pure Land in the Human Realm=人間淨土; Humanistic Buddhism=人間佛教
摘要In the history of the Chinese Pure Land Buddhist tradition, many thinkers have given much consideration to the two interrelated questions of the nature of the Pure Land and the meaning of rebirth within it. In the premodern period, two ideas predominated and frequently clashed. The first was the position of “western-direction” or “other-direction pure land” (xīfang / tāfāng jìngtǔ 西方 / 他方淨土 ), in which the practitioner sought rebirth in an existent Pure Land to the west of the present world. The second was “mind-only pure land” (wéixīn jìngtǔ 唯心淨土 ), in which the Pure Land was coextensive with this world and manifested when the practitioner’s mind was purified enough to see it. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, however, another way of thinking about the Pure Land emerged as part of the movement commonly referred to as “Humanistic Buddhism” (rénjiān fójiào 人間佛教 ). Known as “The Pure Land in the Human Realm” (rénjiān jìngtǔ 人間淨土 ), it sought to engage practitioners in environmental and social welfare work in order to alleviate suffering and improve lives in the present world.
While these developments are most often credited to the monk-reformer Taixu (Tàixū 太虛 , 1890-1947), an examination of his works reveals him as an ambiguous modernizer, mixing the traditional and the modern in an unsystematic manner. Ven.Dr. Sheng Yen (Shèngyán 聖 嚴 , 1930-2009), often seen as a carrier of the tradition of Humanistic Buddhism, took a more synthetic and modern approach to Pure Land. In his mature view, the previous positions of “western-direction” and “mind- only” Pure Land are neither incompatible with each other nor with the modern concept of “Pure Land in the Human Realm.” Indeed, they may be seen as stages in a path. As he puts it, the Pure Land path can start from a relatively simple practice such as oral invocation of the name of Amitābha and lead to a realization of one’s own mind in the practice of “Buddha- invocation Chan” (niànfó chán 念佛禪 ), with the ultimate goal of realizing both the wisdom and compassion of a bodhisattva through the twin practices of realizing the Pure Land as one’s own mind while simultaneously establishing the Pure Land in the Human Realm. In this presentation I hope to contextualize Ven. Dr. Sheng Yen’s Pure Land teachings in the overall history of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism and enable readers to see his innovative way of reconciling seemingly incompatible approaches.

中國淨土宗傳統以來,很多宗師大德對於淨土的本質,以及往生極樂世界的意義二者之間的關聯,早已多方討論。一直到現代之前,兩個主導的觀念一直互相衝擊:其一是「西方∕他方淨土」的觀念,修行者希冀往生後投生於位居現世西方的淨土;第二的「唯心淨土」,則認為淨土和現世共存,當修行者心淨到某一程度時,就可在現世見到淨土。十九世紀末,二十世紀初,開始了另一思維,開展出人間佛教的運動。人間淨土鼓勵修行人積極投入環境或社會福利工作,來拔苦而提昇現世生活。
一般都認為此運動由太虛大師(1890-1947)領導,然而太虛大師的著作,則顯示他所謂初步的現代化,就是把傳統與現代二者,不太有系統性地雜混一起。而一般認為是聖嚴法師(1930-2009)把淨土法門系統性地現代化,發揚實踐人間佛教的傳承。在他成熟的見解裡,不但原先格格不入的西方淨土與唯心淨土不再起衝突,甚至與現代的人間淨土觀念都很和諧。誠然,我們可以把此現象視為現代化的不同階段。聖嚴法師曾說過淨土法門可以從較簡單的練習,例如念佛名號開始,接下來以念佛禪來明心見性,最後要了知淨土即自心,同時在人間建立淨土,以此雙修,來證得菩薩的慈悲與智慧。我希望此文由中國淨土佛教的脈絡裡,來看聖嚴師父的淨土法門,向與會大眾闡述聖嚴師父如何創新地融合狀似不相容的法門。
目次1. Introduction 261
2. Taixu and the Pure Land in the Human Realm 263
3. Sheng Yen’s Synthesis 268
4. Conclusion 278
Bibliography 280
中文摘要 282
點閱次數4
建檔日期2021.08.19
更新日期2021.08.19










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