「默默忘言、昭昭現前」 - 東亞佛教文化視野下的曹洞宗與默照禪=“Silently and Serenely, Forgetting All Words, Clearly and Vividly, It Appears before You”: Caodong School and Silent Enlightenment from the Perspective of East Asian Buddhism Culture
This article aims to discuss the inheritance and changes of the main Meditation practice of Caodong School, “Silent Enlightenment”, in the context of East Asian Buddhist communication. During the Southern Song Dynasty, Caodong School used the “Silent Enlightenment” initiated by Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091-1157) as a symbol of its prosperity. However, it almost disappeared until the Ming in China. Instead, because the Japanese monk Yonghei Dōgen (1200-1253) entered the Song Dynasty for the Dharma who worshipped Tiāntóng Rújìng (1163-1228) as his master, brought the Chan of Caodong School method back to Japan and founded the Japanese Caodong School which has become Japan's largest Chan sect. What deserves our attention is that the Silent Enlightenment of Caodong School in China has been lost for more than 800 years in the long history. Venerable Master Sheng Yen (1929-2009) founder of the contemporary Dharma Gushan, revive this Silent Enlightenment in contemporary Europe, America and Taiwan. Based on the perspective of the East Asian stage, first discuss the content of Silent Enlightenment advocated by Hongzhi Zhengjue in the Southern Song Dynasty and clarify the criticism of Silent Enlightenment by Dahui Zongga who promoted Hua Tou Chan of Linji school, which became the origin of the name “Silent Enlightenment”. Next, examine Dōgen’s Chan method. Although it is regarded as inheriting the tradition of Silent Enlightenment, there are actually many opinions of Dōgen himself. Dōgen emphasized “Meditation Firstly”, and on the basis of “Just Sitting Meditation (Shikantaza) ”emphasized the “Practice is Enlightenment” characteristics of Chan, which innovated the Chinese Caodong School’s Chan method and became the Chan method of Japan's Caodong School. The final analysis of the two sources of the Silent Enlightenment of Venerable Master Sheng Yen. One is that during the six-year retreat in Meinong, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, he read the Quotations of Hongzhi Zhengjue. While reading the collection, he also practical used the Silent Enlightenment’s method to practice meditation and moreover integrated the Silent Enlightenment meditation of China Caodong School. The second is while further studying in Japan, Venerable Master Sheng Yen also attended the retreat of Caodong’s monk Ban Tetsugyū (1910-1996). Ban Tetsugyū just also inherited Harada Sogaku (1871-1961) monk, who practiced both Caodong and Linji’s two kinds of methods. To explore the meaning of the revival of Silent Enlightenment.