Textual and philosophical problems in the translation and transmission of tathāgatagarbha texts: Sanskrit avinirmuktakleśakośa, amuktajña/amuktajñāna, and tathāgatagarbhaśūnyatārthanaya and their Tibetan translations in the bKa' 'gyur and bsTan 'gyur
This article examines philological problems relating to descriptions defining the tathāgatagarbha, or "buddha-nature", in Sanskrit sūtras and exegetical literature, together with the variant Tibetan translations of these descriptions in the bKa' 'gyur and bsTan 'gyur. Attention is called also to some possible philosophical implications of these variant descriptions.
I. The negated qualifier avinirmuktaklesakosa and the unnegated qualifier *vinirmuktaklesakosa in variant Tibetan translations of a definition of tathagatagarbha in relation to dharmakaya in the srimaladevisimhanadasutra 317 II. The qualifiers (a)muktajna and (a)muktajnana and the problem of their various renderings in Tibetan versions of the srimaladevisimhanadasutra and the commentary on the Ratnagotravibhaga 320 III. The expression tathagatagarbhasunyatarthanaya and its Tibetan translation 325 Concluding summary 331